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24 Cards in this Set

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Psychology
Scientific study of thought and behavior; study of how the brain creates thoughts, feelings, actions and how internal and external environments affect them
Hypothesis
Testable explanations of observed events; "If..then.."
Reliability
Study produces consistent results when replicated so it's ______
Validity
THE EXTENT TO WHICH A TEST MEASURES OR PREDICTS WHAT IT IS SUPPOSED TO

EX: A TEST THAT SAYS THAT THE CHANCES OF YOU GETTING CANCER DEPEND ON THE WEIGHT OF YOUR HEAD IS NOT VALID BECAUSE ITS NOT MEASURING WHAT ITS SUPPOSED TO.
Content Validity
REFERS TO HOW WELL A TEST MEASURES THE BEHAVIOR FOR WHICH IT IS INTENDED

EX: A DRIVING TEST WILL MEASURE YOUR ABILITY AT CERTAIN DRIVING TASKS, SO ITS VALID
Internal Validty
Study shows that only the experimental factor caused an affect
External Validity
results of study apply to other situations
Correlation Study
expresses the relationship between 2 variables; DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION
Experiment
the manipulation of an IV to understand its effect on a DV; Identifies Cause-effect
Sampling
The process of choosing subjects to study
Sample
Group of subjects selected for study; a subset of a population
Population
group of people about whom the researcher wants to make conclusions; sample should be representative of this.
Random assignment
random placement of subjects into experimental or control groups
Control group
group that stays the same; not subjected to experimental manipulation
Variables
things that can vary among subjects
Independent Variable
Variable that I change; produces a change in the DV
Dependent Variable
measured by the researcher
Confounding Variable
any possible variable- other than the IV - that may cause the observed effect
Frequency distribution
an arrangement of data points based on how frequently they occur
Normal Distribution
Frequency distribution with the shape of a normal curve ( a symmetrical bell shaped curve)
Central tendency
measures of the center of the frequency distribution : Mean, Median, Mode
Variability
how the data are spread around the mean
Standard deviation
average distance of a data point from the mean; small = scores relatively close to the mean; large = scores have a wider range around the mean
Statistical significance
means that the differences observed are too big to have occurred by change