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45 Cards in this Set

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Norman Triplett
Published the first study in social psychology. Investigated the effect of competition on performance. Found that people perform better on familiar tasks when in the presence of others than when alone.
William McDougall
A psychologist who published the first textbook in social psychology.
E.H. Ross
A sociologist who published the first textbook in social psychology
Experiment by Verplank
suggested that social approval influences behavior. In his study, he showed that the course of a conversation changes dramatically based upon feeback (approval) from others.
Role Theory
The perspective that people are aware of the social roles they are expected to fill, and much of their observable behavior can be attributed to adopting those roles.
Attitudes
Include cognitions or beliefs,feelings, and behavioral predisposition. Attitudes are typically expressed in opinions.
Consistency Theories
People prefer consistency, an will change or resist changing atttitudes based on this preference.
Fritz Heider's Balance Theory
(a consistency theory) Concerned with the way three elements are related: the person whom we're talking about (P), some other person (O), and a thing, idea or some other person (X). Balance exists when all three fit together harmoniously. When there isn't balance, there will be stress, and a tendency to remove this stress by achieving balance.
Leon Festinger's Cognitive Dissonance Theory
(a consistency theory)The conflict that one feels when our attitudes are not in synch wiht our bejaviors. The greater the dissonace, the greater the pressure to reduce it.
Free Choice Dissonance
(a consistency theory) Occurs in a situation where a person makes a choice between several desirable alternatives.
Post-decisional Dissonance
Dissonance that occurs after making a choice.
Spreading of Alternatives (for cognitive dissonance)
The relative worth of two alternatives is spread apart (either by accentuating the positive or negative in one or the other alternative).
Forced Compliance Dissonance
Occurs when an individual is forced into behaving in a manner that is inconsistent with his or her beliefs or atttitudes.
Experiment by Festinger and Carlsmith
Participants were asked to perform boring tasks repeatedly and then told to tell the next person (a confederate) that the task was enjoyable. Participants were paid $1 or $20 to 'mislead' the next participant. Participants where then asked to rate the experiment. The $1 group actually reported that they enjoyed the experiment more than the $20 group. This is consistent with cognitive dissonance theory. The group who received the $20 had little dissonance because $20 was a good compensation for a lie. The $1 group had to change their cognition to reduce the dissonance from lying and so said the experiment was enjoyable, since they had already gone through the trouble of doing it.
Insufficient Justification Effect
Occurs when the external justification is minimal, you reduce your dissonance by changing internal cognitions.
Daryl Bem's Self-Perception Theory
(used to explain forced-complaince dissonance) When your attitudes about something are weak or ambiguous, you observe your own behavior and attribute an attitude to yuorself. In this theory, a person's initial attitude is irrelevant and there is no discomfort produced by behavior.
Overjustification Effect
If you reward people for something they already like doing, they may stop liking it because they may attribute their behavior to the reward (an external cause) rather than to their own disposition (an internal cause).
Carl Hovland's Model
This model deals with attitude change as a process of communicating a message with the intent to persuade someone. He broke down communication of persuasion into three components: the communicator, the communications, and the situation. The communicator or source, is someone who has taken a position on an issue and is trying to persuade someone to adopt his or her position. The communicator produces a communication (presentation or argument) that is designed with the intent to persuade others. The situation is the surroundings in which the communication takes place. The more credible the source, the more persuasive he or she will be. The source can also increase credibility by arguing against their own self-interest.
Carl Hovland and Walter Weiss Experiment
Conducted a classic study on source credibility. Participants were presented with an article about a controversial topic in their time written by a physicist or a reporter. The opinions of the participants were recorded before, after and four weeks after reading the articles to measure an opinion change thay could be attributed to reading the articles. They found that communications by highly credible sources (as the physiscist) were more effective than were by low credibility sources.
The Sleeper Effect
A phenomenon in which the impact of a high credibility source decreases over time and the impact of a low credibilitu source increases over time.
Two Sided-Messages
Contain arguments for and against a position, are used for balanced communication.
Petty and Cacioppo's Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion
Model suggests that there are two routes to persuasion; the central route and the peripheral route. If the issue is very important to us, we are dealing with central route to persuasion. If the issue is not very important to us, we are dealing with the peripheral route to persuasion.
William McGuire
Does research on how to resist persuasion.Believed that people can be psychologically inoculated against an oncoming attack by first exposing them to a weaker attack.Found that innoculation can be quite effective in developing the resistance of cultural truisms to subsequent attacks.
Analogy of Inoculation
People can be inoculated against the attack of persuasive communications. q
Cultural Truisms
Used to test analogy of inoculation theory. Cultural truisms are beliefs that are seldom questioned.
Refuted Counterarguments
McGuire inoculated people against attacks on cutural truisms by first presenting arguments against the truisms and then refuting the arguments.
Belief Perseverance
Under certain conditions, people will hold beliefs even after they have been shown to be false.
Reactance
Occurs when social pressures to behave in a particular way are so blatant that the person's sense of freedom is theatened, the person will tend to act in a way to reassert a sense of freedom.
Leon Festinger's Social Comparison Theory
Suggests that we are drawn to affiliate because of a tendency to evaluate ourselves in relationship to other people. This theory has three principles: 1) people prefer to evaluate themselves by objective, nonsocial means, but when this is not possible they evaluate their capabilties in comparison to other people. 2) If there are little similarities between two people, comparisons are rarely made. 3) When a discrepancy exist with respect to opinions and abilities, there is a tendency to change one's position as to move it in line with the group.
Stanley Schacter
Found that greater anxiety leads to desire to affiliate. Found that anxious people prefer the company of other anxious people.
Reprocicity Hypothesis
We tend to like people who indicate they like us. We tend to dislike those who dislike us. We take into account the other person's evaluation of us.
Gain-Loss Principle by Aronson and Linder
A twist to the reprocicity hypothesis.States that an evaluation that changes will have more of an impact than an evaluation that remains constant. Ex. we will like someone more if their liking for us increases, than if it stays the same. We will dislike someone more if their liking for us has decreased, than someone who has consistently disliked us.
Social Exchange Theory
Assumes that a person weighs the rewards and costs of interacting with another. The more the rewards outweigh the costs, the greater the attraction to the other person.
Equity Theory
Proposes that we consider not only consider our own costs and rewards, but the costs and rewards of the other person.
Need Complementarity
Claims that people choose relationships so that they mutually satisfy each other's needs.
Attractiveness Stereotype
The tendency to attribute positive qualities and desireable characteristics to attractive people. This may explain why people are so physically attarcted to these individuals.
Spatial Proximity
People will generally develop a greater liking for someone who lives within a few blocks than for someone who ives in a different neighborhood.
Mere Exposure Hypothesis
(researched by Robert Zajonc)
States that mere exposure to a stimulus leads to enhanced liking for it.
Helping Behavior
Includes altruistic motivations, and behaviors that may be motivated by egoism or selfishness.
Altruism
A form of helping behavior in which the person's intent is to benefit someone at some cost to himself or herself.
Bystander Intervention
John Darley and Bibb Latane
Based on the killing of Kitty Genovese. Studied the role of social influence, in a study in which participants saw white smoke and had to decide whether it was an emergency situation or not. Confederates were also present in the room where they gave notice to the smoke and continued about their business. Results show that participants who were in a room with confederates always considered the smoke as a nonemergency.
Social Influence
(Latane and Darley)
People look at other people to make decisions based on what others are doing.
Diffusion of Responsibility
(Latane and Darley)
Once an individual interprets that a situation constitues and emergency, the person has to decide whether or not to help. Determined that people will feel more responsible about attending to an emergency situation if they are alone. Otherwise, they can share that responsibility with other people who are present, and not feel guilty about not responding to an emergency situation. In another study participants talked to other people through a intercom in which someone had a seizure (the participant was not socially influenced by the decisions of others becasue they couldnot see them). Results confirm the diffusion of responsibility theory becasue the more people present (evenn in audio), the less likelyhood that any individual will offer help.
Pluralistic Ignorance
(Latane and Darley)
Based on social influence in which people decide that an emergency situation is really a nonemergency situation because no one has acted on it.
Empathy
The ability to vicariously experience the emotions of another.