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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule
Learning
-every correct response is met with some form of reinforcement.
-facilitates the quickest learning but is also the most fragile (animal stops performing when rewards stop)
Ivan Pavlov
Learning
-CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (Pavlovian Conditioning)
-1st famous winner of Nobel Prize for work with dogs and digestion
-food (US) ---> salivate (UR)
feet (CS) --> salivate (CR)
Partial Reinforcement Schedule
Learning
-not all correct responses are reinforced
-longer learning time, but behaviors are more resistant to extinction
- 4 types: Fixed Ratio, Variable Ratio, Fixed Interval, Variable Interval
Theory of Association
Learning
-Kurt Lewin
-forerunner of behaviorism
-Association is grouping things together based on the fact that they occur together in time and space.
-Organisms associate certain behaviors with certain rewards and certain cues with certain situations.
(later proved by Pavlov)
Fixed Interval Schedule
Learning
-rewards come after the passage of a certain amount of time, regardless of behavior
- does little to motivate an animal's behavior
- ex. Salaries and Tenure
Kurt Lewin
Learning
THEORY of ASSOCIATION
-forerunner of behaviorism
-grouping based on time and space.
Fixed Ratio Schedule
Learning
-reinforcement delivered after a certain number of responses.
- vulnerable to extinction when rewards stop coming as scheduled
- rats and drugs in Skinner box
Classical Conditioning
Learning
-Pavlov
-organism learns to respond to a neutral stimulus by pairing it with an unneutral stimulus
- Unconditioned Stimulus --> Unconditioned Response
-Conditioned Stimulus
--> Conditioned Response
-(US) and (CS) are paired in time and space
Shaping or Differential Reinforcement of Successive Approximations
Learning
-B.F. Skinner and Operant Cond.
-Initial rewards for getting closer to the desired behavior until that behavior is reached.
John B. Watson
Learning
-Expanded on Pavlov's ideas
-founded school of BEHAVIORISM
-everything can be explained by stimulus - response chains (Classic Conditioning)
-only objective and observable elements are of importance.
Token Economy
Learning
-artificial mini-economy found in prisons, rehab centers and mental hospitals.
-individuals are motivated by secondary reinforcements (tokens) which can be exchanged for primary reinforcers (cigarettes, privileges)
B.F. Skinner
Learning
-OPERANT CONDITIONING
behavior influenced primarily through reinforcement (Thorndike and cause and effect)
-used rats and the Skinner box in a classic stereotype of psych study
*proved animals are influenced by reinforcement
-books: Walden Two and Beyond Freedom and Dignity. discuss control of human behavior.
Variable Ratio Schedule
Learning
-reinforcement after differing number of correct responses
- longest learning time
-least likely to be extinguished
- ex. Slot Machines
(ratio cannot be predicted)
E.L. Thorndike
Learning
Law of Effect: precursor of operant conditioning.
cause and effect chain of behavior revolving around reinforcement. (do what rewards and don't do what doesn't)
Variable Interval Schedule
Learning
-rewards are given after differing time periods.
-2nd most effective strategy for maintaining behavior
-ex. waiting for the bus
Simultaneous Conditioning
Learning
-the US and the CS are presented at the same time
-type of Classical Cond.
Negative Reinforcement
Learning
- removal of something negative that increases the liklihood of a particular response.
ex. stop shock when lever is pushed, no chores for good behavior
Higher-order / Second-order Conditioning
Learning
-Conditioning technique
-previous CS now acts as US.
ex. 1st: food = US and
feet = CS
2nd: feet = US and
bell = CS
Secondary Reinforcement
Learning
-A learned reinforcer
ex. money, awards, token
economy, prestige
Forward Conditioning
Learning
-Pairing of the CS and US in Classical Cond. where the CS is presented BEFORE the US.
-2 Types: Delayed Cond.
Trace Cond.
Primary Reinforcement
Learning
-A Natural Reinforcement: reinforced on its own without the requirement of learning
ex. Food and Water
Trace Conditioning
-A type of Forward Conditioning, which is a type of Classical Cond.
-The CS is presented and terminated before the US is presented
Positive Reinforcement
Learning
-Giving Something: reward or positive event that acts as a stimulus to increase the liklihood of a particular response
ex. treat, affection, praise
Backward Conditioning
-type of Classical Cond. in which the CS is presented AFTER the US.
-Ineffective
-Causes Inhibitory Conditioning: less liklihood of the US and CS being paired even if presented Forward.
Inhibitory Conditioning
-harder time in pairing the US and CS, created in Backward Conditioning
Delayed Conditioning
-A type of Forward Conditioning, which is a type of Classical Cond.
- The presentation of the CS begins before that of the US and lasts until the US is presented
Learning
the relatively permanent or stable changes in behavior as the result of experience.

E.L Thorndike, Kurt Lewin, Pavlov, John B. Watson, B.F Skinner
Operant Conditioning
Learning
-B.F. Skinner
-aims to influence response through reinforcement strategies.
-1st experiment: Skinner Box (rats with levers, press lever and get food)
-uses process of shaping or differential reinforcement of successive approximations (rewards for moving closer to lever)
Law of Effect
Learning
-E.L. Thorndike
-precursor of operant conditioning
-cause and effect chain of behavior revolving around reinforcement
-Individuals do what rewards them and stop doing what doesn't