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74 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior.
Cognitive Perspective.
An integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world.
Cognitive Schema.
A form of therapy designed to identify and change irrational unproductive ways of thinking and hence to reduce negative emotions and their behavioral consequences; it is often combined with behavioral techniques.
Cognitive Therapy.
In Jungain theory, the universal memories and experiences of humankind, represented in the symbols, stories, and images (archetypes) that occur across all cultures.
Collective Unconscious.
Cultures in which the self is regarded as embedded in relationships, and harmony with one's group is prized above individual goals and wishes.
Collectivist Cultures.
A mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties.
The classical-conditioning term for a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus; it occurs after the conditioned stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Response (CR).
The classic-conditioning term for an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS).
A basic kind of learning that involves associations between environmental stimuli and the organism's responses.
Visual receptors involved in color vision.
Confusion of an event that happened to someone else with one that happened to you, or a belief that you remember something when it never actually happened.
The tendency to look for or pay attention only to information that confirms one's own beliefs.
Confirmation Bias.
Awareness of oneself and the environment.
The understanding that the physical properties of objects--such as the number of items in a cluster or the amount of liquid in a glass--can remain the same even when their form or appearance changes.
The process by which a long-term memory becomes durable and stable.
In primates, the innate pleasure derived from close physical contact; it is the basis of the infant's first attachment.
Contact Comfort.
A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is always reinforced.
Continous Reinforcement.
In an experiement, a comparison condition in which subjects are not exposed to the same treatment as in the experimental condition.
Control Condition.
The turning inward of the eyes, which occurs when they focus on a nearby object.
The bundle of nerve fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres.
Corpus Callosum.
A measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.
A descriptive study that looks for a consistent relationship between two phenomena.
Correlation Study.
In classical conditioning, the process of pairing a conditioned stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned response.
The ability and willingness to assess claims and make judgements on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence, rather than emotion or anecdote.
Critical Thinking.
A study in which subjects of different ages are compared at a given time.
Cross-Sectional Study.
Congitive skills and specific knowledge of informatin acquired over a lifetime; it is heavily dependent on education and tends to remain stable over the lifetime.
Crystallized Intelligence.
The inability to retrieve information stored in memory because of insufficient cues for recall.
Cue-Dependent Forgetting.
A program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a community or society, and a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most members of that community.
A process by which visual receptors become maximally sensitive to dim light.
Dark Adaption.
The theory that information in memory eventually disappears if it is not accessed; it applies better to short-term than to long-term memory.
Decay Theory.
Memories of facts, rules, concepts, and events ("knowing that"); they include semantic and episodic memories.
Declarative Memories.
A form of reasoning in which a conclusion follows necessarily from certain premises; if the premises are true, the conclusion must be true.
Deductive Reasoning.
In the encoding of informatin, the process of meaning rather than simply the physical or sensory features of a stimulus.
Deep Processing.
Methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering consciousness.
Defense Mechanisms.
In groups or crowds, the loss of awareness of one's own individuality.
A neuron's branches that receive information from other neurons and transmit it toward the cell body.
A variable that an experimenter predicts will be affected by maipulation of the independent variable.
Dependent Variable.
Drugs that slow down activity in the central nervous system.
Methods that yeild descriptons of behavior but not necessarily causal explanations.
Descriptive Methods.
Statistical procedures that organize and summarize research data.
Descriptive Statistics.
A process in which opposing facts or ideas are weighed and compared, with a view to determining the best solution or resolving differences.
Dialectical Reasoning.
The smallest difference in stimulation that can be reliable detected by an observer when two stimuli are compared; also called "just noticeable difference (jnd)".
Difference Threshold.
In organized or anonymous groups, the tendency of members to avoid taking responsiblility for actions or decisions, assuming that others will do so.
Diffusion of Responsibility.
A stimulus that signals when a particular response is likely to be followed by a certain type of consequence.
Discriminative Stimulus.
Social and cultural rules that regulate when, how, and where a person may express (or must supress) emotions.
Display Rules.
A split in consciousness in which one part of the mind operates independently of others.
A controversial disorder marked by the apparent appearance within one person of two or more distinct personalities, each with its own name and traits; commonly known as multiple personality disorder (MPD).
Dissociative Identity Disorder
The chromosomal molecule that transfers genetic characteristics by way of coded instructions for the structure of proteins.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
The principle that different sensory modalities exist because signals received by the sense organs stimulate different nerve pathways leading to different areas of the brain.
Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies.
An experiment in which neither the subjects nor the individuals running the study know which subjects are in the control group and which are in the experimental group until after the results are tallied.
Double-blind study.
The amount of variance among scores in a study accounted for by the independent variable.
Effect Size.
In psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self-control.
Seeing the world from only your own point of view; the inability to take another person's perspective.
Egocentric Thinking.
Association of new information with already stored knowledge and analysis of the new information to make it memorable.
Elaborative Rehearsal.
A procedure used in cases of prolonged and severe major depression, in which a brief brain seizure is induced.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT).
A recording of neural activity detected by electrodes.
Electroencephalogram (EEG).
A state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action, all shaped by cultrual rules.
Expression of an emotion that the person does not really feel, often because of a role requirement.
Emotion Work.
The ability to identify your own and other people's emotions accurately, express your emotions clearly, and regulate emotions in yourself and others.
Emotional Intelligence.
Relying on or derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement.
Internal organs that produce hormones and release them into the blood stream.
Endocrine Glands.
Generated from within rather than by external cues.
Chemical substances in the nervous system that are similar in structure and action to opiates; they are involved in pain reduction, pleasure, and memory, and are known technically as endogenous opioid peptides.
The synchronization of biological rhythms with external cues, such as fluctuations in daylight.
A gradual process in which individuals escalate their commitment to a course of action to justify their investment of time, money, or effort.
Memories of personally experienced events and the contexts in which they occured.
Episodic Memories.
The sense of balance
A person's identification with a racial, religious, or ethnic group.
Ethnic Identity.
The belief that one's own ethnic group, nation, or religion is superior to all others.
A change in gene frequencies within a population over many generations; a mechanism by which genetically influenced characteristics of a population may change.
A field of psychology emphasizing evolutionary mechanism that may help explain human commonalities in cognition, development, emotion, social practices, and other areas of behavior.
Evolutionary Psychology.
A form of therapy designed to help clients explore the meaning of existence and face the great questions of life, such as death, freedom, free will, alienation, and loneliness.
Existential Therapy.
A controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another.
Unintended changes in subjects' behavior due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter.
Experimenter Effects.