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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feelings, and acting
Free Association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
Freud's theory of personality that attributs our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psoychological disorders by seeking the expose and interpret unconscious tensions
according to Freud, a reservior of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories
contains a reservior of unconscious psychic energy that according to freud strives to satisfy basic secual and aggressice drives. the id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to freud, mediates amount he demands of the id, superego, and reality. teh ego perates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleaseure reather than pain
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement (the conscience) and for future aspirations
Psychosexual stages
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, letency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinc erogenous zones
Oedipus complex
acording to freud, a boys sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
the process by which, according to freud, children incorporate their parents values into their developing superegos
according to freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved
defense Mechanisms
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
a psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories form consciousness
defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
Reaction formation
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. thus, people may express feelings of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people diguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
psychoanalytic defense mechanishm that shifts sexual or affressice impulses toward a more acceptableor less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
Projective test
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's intter dynamics
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through their stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely uses projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify peoples inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
collective unconscious
carl jungs concept of shared inherited reservoir of memory traces for out species history
according to maslow, the unltimate psycholgical need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
Unconditional positive regard
according to rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "who am i?"
a charcteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
Personality inventory
a questionare (often with true-false or agree-disagree itesms) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selcted personality traits
Minnesota Multiphasic Perosnality Inventory (MMPI)
the most widely research and clinically used of all personality tests. orignally decelpoed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use) this test is noe ues for many other screening purposes
Empirically derived test
a test (such as the MMIP) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
anxiety disorders
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persisent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
generalized anxiety disorders
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensice, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
Panic disorder
an axiety disorder marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or stiuation
Obessive-Compulsive Disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitice thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
mood disorders
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
Major Depression disorder
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activites
manic episode
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, widly optimistic state
bipolor disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopeless and letharge of depression and the overexcited state of mania
a group of severe disorders characterized by diorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
false beliefs, often of perscution of grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
an emotionally charged, confiding interacion between a trained therapist and someone who suffers form psychological difficulties
eclectric approach
an approach to psychotherapy that depending onthe clients problems usese techniques from various forms of therapy
sigmung freuds therapeutic technique. freud believed the patients free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences- and the therapist's interpretations of them- released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patients to gain self-insight
in psychoanalysis the blocking form consciousness of anxiety-landen material
in psychoanalysis the analysts noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significan behaviors in order to promote insight
in psychoanalysis the patients transfer tot he analyst of emotion linked with other relationships
client-centered therapy
a humanistic therapy develped by carl rogers in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic enviorment to facilitate clients growth
active listening
empathic listening in which the listeners echoes, restates, and clarifies. a feature of rogers client-centered therapy
behavior therapy
therapy that applies learning principles to elimination of unwanted behaviors
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning. includes systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning
exposure therapies
behavioral tchniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid
systemaatic desensitization
a type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. commonly used to treat phobias
aversive conditioning
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with and unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
Token economy
an operant conditioning procedure that rewards desired behavior. a patient echanges a token os some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various privilegs or treats
cognitive therapy
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
cognitive-behavior therapy
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
Family therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system. views on individuals unwanted behaviors as influenced by or direct at other family members; attempts to guide family member toward positive realtionships and improved communication
an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
a procedure for statisically combining the results of many different research studies
social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and realte to one another
attribution theory
the theory that we tend give a causal explanation for someone's behavior, often crediting either the situation or the persons disposition
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for obervers, when analyzing anothers behaviors, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
a belief and feeling tha predisposes one to respond in a particular was to objects, people, and events
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. for example when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attiudes
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
normative social influence
influence resulting from a persons desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
informational social influence
influence resuting form ones willingness to accept others opinions about reality
social facilitation
improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when indicidually accountable
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occuring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
group polarization
the enhancement of a group's prevailing attidudes through discussion within the group
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
an unjustified (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its member. prejudice generally involves sterotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
a generalized (someitmes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
"us"-people with whom one shares a common identity
"them"- those perceived as different or apart form ones group
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor ones own group
scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice offers an oulet for anger by providing soemone to blame
just-world phenomenon
the tendency of people to belive the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
frustration-aggression principle
the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, when can generate aggression
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
socail trap
a situation in which the sonflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increase liking of them
passionate love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
companionate love
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
a condition in which people receive from a realtionship in proportion to what they give to it
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences amoun people and require their cooperation
graduated and reciprocted initiatives in tension-reduction- a strategy designed to decrease international tension