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160 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
What are the 4 goals of psychology?
1. Describe
2. Explain
3. Predict
4. Control (influence)
What are the 4 descriptive research methods?
1. naturalistic observation
2. laboratory observation
3. case study
4. survey research
What is a naturalistic observation?
observation an record of behavior in it's natural form
What is a laboratory observation?
observation and record of behavior in a lab (more controlled)
What is a case study?
a depth study with one or a few participants to provide a description of behavior or disorder
What is a survey research?
interviews and/or questionnaires to gather information
What is the experimental method?
direct way to test a hypothesis about a cause and effect between factors
What is the independent variable?
controlled by the experimentor
What is the dependent variable?
the other is observed and measured
What is the correlation method?
to establish the relationship between two characteristics, events or behaviors
What is the main ethic of psychology research?
written consent
What are the sensory neurons?
input from sensory organs to the brain and spinal cord
What are the motor neurons?
output from the brain and spinal cord to the muscle and glands
What are the interneurons?
carry information between and to other neurons; only found in the brain and spinal cord; also most numerous
What are the neurotransmitor?
chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell accross a synapse
What is the Acetylcholine neurotransmittor?
very IMPORTANT; keeps heart from beating too fast; involved in learning and memory
What is the Dopamine neurotransmittor?
invovled in movement, attention and learning; imbalance or loss results in schizophrenia or Parkinson's
What is the Serotonin neurotransmittor?
plays role in appetite, sleep, regulating mood, aggression, and impulsivity
What is the GABA neurotransmittor?
the main inhibitory neurotransmittor; Huntington's disease
What is the Glutamate neurotransmittor?
the main excitatory neurotransmittor
What is the Norepinephrine neurotransmittor?
plays role in alterness, sleep, eating, arousal, flight or fight response
What is the brain stem?
very IMPORTANT; internal physiological state of the body
What is the cerebellum?
coordinates movements, balance, and posture
What is the hypothalamus?
regulates eating, drinking, sexual arousal, and body temperature
What it the limbic system?
regulates motives, drives feelings
What is the cerebral cortex?
makes up 2/3 of brain; highly developed; plays role in thinking, perceiving, producing, and understanding language
What and where is the primary motor cortex?
found in frontal lobe; plays role in speech production
What and where is the the auditory cortex?
found in the temporal lobe; plays role in understanding meaningful speech
What and where is the somatosensory cortex?
found in the parietal lobe; plays role in processing sensory information
What is the function of the frontal lobe?
planning, decision making, motor movements, personality regulation, and seeking goals
What is the function of the parietal lobe?
process sensory information (touch, pain, locations of limbs, and temperature)
What is the function of the temporal lobe?
primary job is to make sense of what you hear
What is the function of the occipital lobe?
process visiual information
What is an EEG?
records brain wave activity
Beta (mental and physical)
Alpha (deep relaxation)
Delta (deep sleep)
What is a CT scan?
cross sectional images (using radiation)
What is a MRI scan?
high-resolution images (non radiation)
What is a PET scan?
maps blood flow, oxygen, glucose consuption
What is the CNS (central nervous system)?
consists of brain and spinal cord
What is the spinal cord?
connects brain and PNS
What is the PNS (peripheral nervous system)?
carries messages to and from CNS
PNS subdivisions
somatic nervous system
autonomic nervous system
What is the SNS?
controls voluntary muscle and transmits sensory info to CNS
What is the ANS?
controls involuntary movements
What are the ANS subdivisions?
sympathetic nervous system
parasympathetic nervous system
What is the Sympathetic NS?
arouses body for action
What is the Parasympathetic NS?
calms body to conserve and maintain energy
What is the Endorcrine system?
system of glands which secretes a type of hormone(s) directly into the bloodstream
What is learning?
a relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience
What was Pavlov's experiment?
the dog salivating on the sound of the bell
What is the unconditional response (UCR)?
a response that is evoked by unconditioned stimulus without prior learning
What is the unconditional stimulus (UCS)?
a stimulus that evokes a specific unconditional response without prior learning
What is the conditioned stimulus (CS)?
a neutral stimulus (at first) that after repeated pairing with an unconditional stimulus, becomes associated with it and evokes a conditional response
What is the conditional response (CR)?
the learning response that comes to be evoked by a conditional stimulus as a result of its repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus
What is generalization for classical conditioning?
making a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus
What is generalization for operant conditioning?
making the learned response to a stimulus similar to that for which the response was orginially reinforced
What is spontaneous recovery?
reappearance of an extinguished response (in a weaker form) after exposure to the original conditioned stimulus following a rest period
What is operant conditioning?
learning via reinforcement and/or punishment
What is negative reinforcement?
removal of an aversive stimulus that increases the occurrence of a behavior
What is positive reinforcement?
presentation of a stimulus that increase the occurrence of behavior
What is punishment?
stop or decrease the occurrence of a behavior
What is observational learning?
learning by observing others
What is memory?
the ability to retain information overtime using Encoding, Storing, and Retrieving
What is encoding?
making mental representation of information so we can place it into your memories
What is storing?
placing encoded information into relatively permanent storage for later (process of maintaining the information in memory)
What is retrieving?
recalling information that has been stored in a short-term or long-term storage (bringing the information to mind)
What is the function of sensory memory?
holds information long enough to be processed for basic physical characteristics
What is the capacity of sensory memory?
large (it can hold many items at once)
What is the duration of sensory memory?
very brief retention of images
3 seconds for visual info
2 seconds for auditory info
What is the function of short-term memory?
conscious processing of information (where information is actively worked on)
What is the capacity of short-term memory?
limited (it holds 7 to 9 times)
What is the duration of short-term memory?
brief storage (about 30 seconds)
What is the function of long-term memory?
organizes and stores information (more passive form of storage than working memory)
What is the capacity of long-term memory?
What is the duration of long-term memory?
thought by some to be permanent
What are the subdivisions of LTM?
Explicit Memory (declarative; memory with conscious recall)
Implicit Memory (non-declarative; memory without conscious recall)
What is implicit memory?
procedural memory (motor skills, action)
What is explicit memory?
episodic memory (memories you have experienced)
somatic memory (general knowledge, facts)
What part of the brain is associated with memory?
the hippocampus
What is recall?
test of LTM taht involves retrieving memories without cues
What is recognition?
test of LTM that involves identifying correct information from a series of possible choices
What is serial position effect?
tendency to remember items at the beginning and end of a list better that items in the middle
What is primacy effect?
tendency to recall the first item in a sequence more readily
What is recency effect?
tendency to recall the last item in a sequence more readily
What is forgetting?
inability to retrieve previously available information
What is encoding failure?
information was never encoded into LTM
What is decay theory?
memories fade away or decay gradually if unused; time plays critical role
What is the interference theory?
memories interfering with memories; forgetting NOT caused by mere passage of time
What is retroactive interference?
when a NEW memory interferes with remembering OLD information
What is proactive intereference?
when OLD memory interferes with remembering NEW information
What is developmental psychology?
the study of how humans grow, develop, and change throughout the lifespan
What are the stage of prenatal development?
germinal stage
embryonic stage
fetal stage
What occurs during the germinal stage?
first 14 days, conception and implantation occurs
What occurs during the embryonic stage?
3rd to 8th week, human body begins to form, all organs are present except the sex organs
What occurs during fetal stage?
9th week to birth; development of all organs occurs
What are teratogens?
any agent that causes a structural abnormality following fetal exposure during pregnancy
What stage do teratogens affect?
embryonic stage
What is attachment?
close bond that develops between the infant and the parent or caregiver
What is secure attachment?
babies are willing to explore, but find their parents as a safe "home base"
What is insecure attachement?
babies refuse to explore or babies explore and dont care where their parents are
What is reactive attachment disorder?
occurs when the child has not formed an attachment by the age 2
What are the stages of cognitive development from Piaget's theory?
sensorimotor (birth to 2)
preoperational (2 to 7)
concrete operations (7 to 11)
formal operations (12 to adulthood)
What occurs during the Sensorimotor Stage?
learing through senses
object permance develops
What occurs during the Preoperational Stage?
symbols to solve problems
conservation task
What occurs during the Concrete Operations Stage?
perform logical mental operations
master conservation task
classification of objects
What occurs during the Formal Operations Stage?
think about and solve abstract and hypothetical problems
Describe the Authoritarian parenting style?
High levels of demand and control
Low levels of warmth and communication
Describe the Permissive parenting style?
High levels of warmth and communication
Low levels of demand and control
Describe the Authorative parenting style?
High communications / warmth and demand / control
Describe the Negligent parenting style?
Low communications / warmth and demand / control
Define sex role.
set of behavioral norms of males and females
Define gender schema theory.
exlpains how individuals become gendered in society, and how sex-linked characteristics are maintained and transmitted to others
According to Erikson's psychosocial theory, at what age does someone enter Trust vs Mistrust?
birth to 1 year. they will learn to trust or mistrust depending on the degree and regularity of care, love, and affection provided by parents and caregivers
According to Erikson's psychosocial theory, at what age does someone enter Identity vs Role Confusion?
adolescences. they must make the transition from childhood to adulthood, establish an identity, develop of sense of self, and consider a future occupational identity.
According to Erikson's psychosocial theory, at what age does someone enter Intimacy vs Isolation?
20 years to 40 years. must develop intimacy, the ability to share with, care for, and commit themselves to another person.
According to Erikson's psychosocial theory, at what age does someone enter Ego integrity vs despair?
late adulthood. they will review their lives, and if they are satisfied and feel a sense of accomplishment, ego integrity will develop.
What is adolescences?
a transition period from childhood to adulthood
What is puberty?
a period of several years in which rapid physical growth and physiological changes occur, reaching sexual maturity
What is Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning for preconventional stage?
self interest. decisions based on fear and punishment; decisions are based on the idea that they will get something in return
What is Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning for conventional stage?
social approval. decisions based on conforming to the standards of those we value; decisions based on conforming to the laws of society
What is Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning for postconventional stage?
abstract ideas. upholding the human rights of all individuals; striking a balance between human rights and the laws of society
What is stress?
psychological and physiological response to a condition that threatens or challenges a person and requires some form of adaptation or adjustment
What is the SRSS?
a tool that can measure major life events (social readustment rating scale)
What are hassles?
daily hassels typically cause more stress than major life changes
What are uplifts?
postive experience in life; they neutralize the effects of many of the hassles
What is the approach-approach, when making choices?
choosing between 2 positive situations
What is the avoidance-avoidance, when making choices?
choosing between 2 undesirable options
What is the approach-avoidance, when making choices?
single situation that has both desirable and undesirable options
What is PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder)?
follows events that produce intense horror or helpless (traumatic episodes)
What are the 3 stages for the general adapttion syndrome?
What is coping?
efforts through action and through deal with demands that perceived as taxing or overwhelming
What is problem-focused coping?
direct response aimed at reducing, modifying or eliminating a source of stress
What is emotion-focused coping?
response involving reapprasing of a stressor to reduce its emotional impact
What is proactive coping?
measures taken in advance to prevent or minimize consequences of stress
What is correlation between the body's immune system and stress?
negative correlation. stress increases = immune system decreases
What two bacterial STDs causes infertility in females?
chlamydia and gonorrhea
Which STD is known as "the great imitator"?
What is the Id?
functions in the irrational and emotional mind. it is present at birth, seeks instant gratification, and is the pleasure principle
What is the Ego?
functions with rational mind. develops between 2 to 3 years and is the reality principle
What is the Superego?
last to develop, between 4 to 5 years and its the moral part of the mind.
What is the preconscious?
thoughts, feelings, and memories that can be accessed and become available at anytime
What is the conscious?
thoughts, feelings, and memories present and available.
What is the unconscious?
primary motivating force of human behavior that is not accessible freely
What is denial?
claiming / beliving that what is ture is actually false
What is displacement?
redirecting emotions to a substitute target
What is projection?
attributing uncomfortable feelings to others
What is rationalization?
creating false but credible justifications
What is regression?
going back to acting as a child (usually occurs during a traumatic event)
What is repression?
pushing uncomfortable events to the unconscious (most frequently used in defense mechanism)
What is the external locus of control?
the belief that the individual's behavior is guided by fate, luck, or other external circumstances
What is the internal locus of control?
belief of the individual's behavior is guided by their own personal decisions and efforts
What are Maslow's 5 hierarchy of needs?
physiological needs
safety/security needs
love and belonging
What is being measured for Openness to Experience?
imagination, insight, broad range of interests
What is being measured for Conscientiousness?
high level of thoughtfulness, with good impulse control and goal-directed behaviors
What is being measured for Extroversion?
excitability, sociability, takativeness, asseriveness, and high amounts of emotional expressiveness
What is being measured for Agreeableness?
trust, altruism, kidness, affection, and other prosocial behaviors
What is being measured for Neuroticism?
tend to experience emotional instability, anxiety, moodiness, irritability, and sadness
What is common for most invetories?
they utilize paper and pencil personality test
What is the DSM?
the diagnositc and statistical manual of mental disorders
What is the difference between compulsions and obsessions?
obsession is the thought and compulsion is the action