Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

113 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The first visible signs of senescence may be observed in the:
Joanna, at adulthood, is finding that the size of newspaper print is getting smaller. To compensate, she holds the paper farther away from her eyes than when she was younger. What is a more likely explanation for her need to move the paper?
Which of the following hearing abilities declines first during middle adulthood?
Distinguish pure tones
Gus has been picking up some extra shifts at work to make ends meet, including taking some all-night shifts. He has been making some costly errors on the job that he's never made before, even when he worked longer hours. What has caused the change?
Aging brain
As Cecelia talked to her daughter on her cell phone, she failed to slow when cars in the same lane were stopping and hit the car in front of her. Why didn't she stop?
Distractions are harder to ingnore
Aging Brain
An initial symptom of frontotemporal dementia is:
Surprising loss of modesty
Desmond and Lucy, both in their mid-50s, wish to maintain their excellent brain functioning into their 70s, 80s, and even beyond. The best way to accomplish their goal is to:
Maintain general health
The average age of menopause is about:
A common outcome when in vitro fertilization is used to assist in reproduction in the United States is that:
Birth Defects
Which of the following is a true statement about hormone replacement therapy?
Menopausal symptoms diminish
Women experience menopause; men experience:
A woman in the United States today is most likely to die from which type of cancer?
Lung cancer
Examining worldwide trends in smoking shows that smoking:
Has decreased
Reasons for low exercise rates cited in the text were primarily:
Lack of commitment
lack of support
community's failure of facilities
The leading cause of premature adult death recognized by the World Health Organization is:
One measure of health is morbidity, which:
rate of disease of all kinds in a given population-- physical and emotional, acute and chronic.
Difficulty in performing normal activities of daily life because of a “physical, mental, or emotional condition” is called:
Combining all four measures of health yields a measure of just how healthy people are called:
Throughout the world, there are more old women than old men because:
Sense affects women more than men
woman age slowly, females live longer worldwide
The tens of millions of Americans who live in neglected neighborhoods and who are of low-socioeconomic status will:
die younger and unhealthy
The Flynn effect is probably due to changes in:
Wider education and experience and better nutrition
A psychologist who is studying the mathematical abilities of adults finds significant differences between the scores of adults born 50 years ago, when rote learning was stressed, and those born 25 years ago, when more “progressive” approaches to education were popular. This is an example of a(n):
Cross-Sectional Research or Flynn Effect
When do most adults reach their peak of intellectual ability?
Frank and Joe are 55-year-old monozygotic twins. Since their genes are identical, according to research, how would they age?
The same
The type of basic intelligence that makes learning quick and flexible is referred to as:
Fluid Intelligence
The ability that involves crystallized intelligence to the greatest extent is:
interpreting a chemical formula.
Creative intelligence requires ______ thinking.
According to Gardner, each of the eight intelligences that he identified is based on:
Particular section of the brain
When developmentalists use the term “expert,” they usually mean a person who:
Practice be extensive at least 10 years and several hours a day

More skilled, proficient, and knowledgeable at a task
Data from the Seattle Longitudinal Study demonstrated that as adults grow older, their intellectual functioning increases if they:
Are motivated
According to Erikson, failure to achieve generativity results in:
Loss of Personal Satisfaction
According to research by Levinson, the period of adult life which is characterized by anxiety, re-examination and sudden transformation is referred to as the:
Midlife Crisis
Compared to a few decades ago, the social clock is:
based on social standards not biological maturation
Throughout adulthood, the major source of an individual's developmental continuity is his or her:
Behavioral development
A person who seems to thrive on changes in his or her work, lifestyle, and relationships would most likely be rated high on the personality dimension called:
Big 5 - openness
Davetta is very organized and tends to conform easily. She is high on which of the Big Five traits?
A particular lifestyle and social context that evokes and reinforces personality traits is called an:
Ecological Niche
Which of the following personality traits tends to increase with age?
The loosening of gender restrictions during middle age is most likely to lead to a gender:
The combined total amount of stress and disease with which an individual must cope is known as:
Allostatic Load
Isaac has been experiencing job-related stress due to the threat of corporate downsizing and the introduction of new advanced technology that he doesn't yet understand. Rather than seeking employment elsewhere, he reminds himself about the valuable contributions he has made to the company for many years and tries to remain optimistic. He is coping with his allostatic load with:
Emotion Focused
Biologically, allostatic load may be relieved by close companionship at times of severe stress because it:
reduces cortisol, the stress hormone
The members of the Kramer family share all aspects of their lives with each other, including their successes and challenges. They have:
linked lives
When Rob graduated from college, he found a good job, a nice apartment, and made new friends. Now three years later, his company went bankrupt and he moved back into his parents' home. We can expect their relationship to:
Familism-- support one another in sucess or failure
Celina and Jorge have recently moved Celina's elderly parents into their home. Even though they face sacrifices for doing so, they believe they did the right thing because of:
Closeness in the relationships between siblings over the years from childhood through late adulthood can be conceived of as a(n):
Help each other with their teenage children, stressful marriages, and elderly relatives
Jeremy was reared in several foster homes and never knew his parents. When he started working with Kent, he became close to Kent's family to the point when they fondly referred to him as “our new-found son.” Jeremy is the family's:
fictive kin
A major factor that influences marital happiness is the:
how old the newlyweds were
Current objective research data on coupling experiences of same-sex partners is:
the same as heterosexual partners
A particularly difficult type of stress that reduces a couple's ability to successfully work through their problems is:
Chronic Financial Pressure
After remarriage, women typically become more financially secure, and men:
Better Health
Research indicates that remarried people:
Less healthy and less successful
The most common ways to satisfy generativity are through work with children and employment that allows personal growth. Another way in which it may be satisfied is through:
Creative Endeavors
Families with stepchildren, foster children, or adoptive children experience greater challenges in developing secure attachments. This is because:
Strong attachment to other caregivers
Which of the following is a true statement regarding the middle generation as the sandwich generation?
Care for younger and older generations
After nearly 20 years with his company, Mike's job was outsourced. He wants his new job to offer not only a good wage but also job satisfaction and a sense of accomplishment. He is focused on the:
Intrinsic Rewards of Work
Cheryl is entering the workforce due to a recent divorce. As a single parent with three children, she needs at least a livable wage, good benefits, and a retirement plan. She is focused on the:
Extrinsic Rewards of Work
Ageism is more insidious when concerning the elderly than the young because:
ageism no longer affects teenagers when they become adults. For elderly as they grow older, ageism gets worse.
What is the relationship between recent changes in demography and ageism?
More people survive to later adulthood
When graphing population changes in developed nations, a population problem that may arise is:
not enough babies
The fastest-growing group in the population of the United States are those:
Elderly People
A dependency ratio is calculated by comparing the number of ______ with the number of ______.
productive adults
In developed nations, which is the most common living arrangement for people over age 65?
Live with a spouse
The main reason we may not notice the young-old is:
Make up the largest group of older adults
The leading cause of death for men and women is:
Cardiovascular disease
Which of the following describes the relationship of age and chronic disease?
age makes bodily systems slower and less efficient and thus makes disease more likely
Older adults who are most likely to experience sleep problems including insufficient deep sleep are:
Smokers and older men
A marked decrease in motor reaction time and brain processing in older adults may be attributed to:
degenerative change in basal ganglia
The most common cause of blindness in the elderly is:
Macular Degeneration
Limiting the time a person spends being ill or infirm is referred to as:
Compression of Morbidity
The wear-and-tear theory of aging is weakened by the fact that:
We breathe and move and get better
An important reason that average life expectancy over the past century has risen is that:
Better sanitation and nutrition
The term “free radicals” refers to:
Electrons of some atoms in our bodies are unattached to their nuclei. Lead to cancer and diabetes
The concept of aging as a result of cellular duplication errors is based on the fact that the body's ability to make new cells that are exact copies of the original ones:
Cellular Aging
Many illnesses are more likely to be fatal to the elderly because:
Weakening immune systems
The Hayflick limit is a natural limit to the:
The amount of times human cells divide
If you want to extend your life by slowing down the aging process, the most promising method is:
Calorie Restriction
For people who reach late adulthood in good health, the most important determinant of longevity may be:
Achieve a compression of morbidity
General decline of cognitive abilities after the age of 65 are typically attributed to:
The primary reason older people receive less input into their brains is that:
senses are less sharp
Vickey will be 60 years old on her next birthday. She loves doing crossword puzzles but is concerned that her vocabulary will decrease with age. You tell her that it will actually increase at least until the age of:
Storage mechanisms, retrieval strategies, selective attention, and logical analysis are all considered:
Control Process
What advice could you give a middle-aged adult who is concerned about the effects of secondary aging on brain function in old age?
Calorie Intake
The biggest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease is being:
a Woman and age
In the second stage of Alzheimer's disease, a person:
Read a newspaper and forget what they read the next moment

Generalized confusion--deficits in concentration and short term memory
Which of the following is a subcortical dementia?
Parkinson's' Disease
Huntington's Disease
Multiple Sclerosis
Which of the following can cause reversible dementia?
Inadequate Nutrition
Alcohol Abuse
Other Mental Illnesses
Brain Injury
Multi-infarct dementia may be prevented by:
eat less fatty food.
stop or reduce smoking.
have your blood pressure taken regularly by your doctor.
The fact that many older people begin to demonstrate an interest in painting, music, or woodworking supports the idea that older people:
Heightened Appreciation
Dorothy has begun keeping a detailed journal that includes stories of her childhood to early adulthood. She plans to pass her journal down to her grandchildren as a family history and so that they could know her in a more intimate way. Her journal writing is a form of:
Life Review
Elements of wisdom include:
Warm social interactions
alturistic concern

Comprehensive approach to life's problems
Reflecting timeless truths rather than immediate expediency
According to Erikson, each new experience throughout life requires:
A Reassessment of Identity
According to identity theory, the process of maintaining identity in late adulthood involves balancing:
Past identity and Current Condition
If neuroticism, the most worrisome of the Big Five traits, remains high in older adulthood, the worry and anxiety associated with it could contribute to:
Increased cognitive impairment
The three major stratification categories that can limit choice at every stage of life are:
Social Forces
Cultural Influences
Direct Life
Recent research in Sweden has indicated that the quality of life in late adulthood is directly related to:
Change in Health
Continuity theory would argue that the reaction of a 70-year-old to the news that he has diabetes and must dramatically change his lifestyle is best predicted by the patient's:
adaptive change
When investigating the relationship between retirement and marriage, researchers have learned that if both spouses are working it is best:
For them to retire together
Where is an elderly person most likely to prefer to live?
Age in place -- Staying in the same place
According to research, positive emotions in the elderly are correlated with:
Religious Involvement
Compared to single older adults, the married elderly tend to be:
Healthier, Wealthier, Happier
Ed and Janet have been married for 60 years. When asked to share their secret to a long marriage, Ed replied:
Both partners feel comfortable by their familiarity
Life long shared experiences
Elderly men may be more troubled by losing a spouse than elderly women are because men:
Are less likely to seek out comfort and help
The closest but most vulnerable family relationship when the parent is in late adulthood is the relationship between:
Them and child
Most contemporary grandparents in the United States prefer which role?
Involved Grandparents
The difference between ADLs and IADLs is that:
IADLs require intellectual competence and forethought
Which of the following is a true statement about family caregivers of the frail elderly?
often caregivers of the elderly are themselves elderly
caregivers often experience substantial stress
sometimes caregivers feel fulfilled by their experiences
designated caregivers are often chosen less for practical reason than because of cultural expectation
respite care
Several recent trends have contributed to making a good death more likely than a bad death. They are:
One that is peaceful and quick and occurs at the end of a long life
In most African traditions, death provides:
An occasion for affirmation for the entire community
Researchers who have subsequently investigated Kübler-Ross's stages have:
not found sequential stages in dying people's approach to death
A seriously ill person is allowed to die naturally, without any medical intervention, via what is called:
Passive Euthanasia
In Oregon, physician-assisted suicide is highest among:
Loss of autonomy
Average 69
Better Educated
More Divocred
European Americans
An important function of the mourning process is to:
move grief towards reaffirmation