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130 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Emphasizes peoples basic goodness and their tendency to grow to higher levels of fuctioning.
conscious self-motivated ability to change and improve
Humanistic Approaches
An attitude of acceptance and respect on the part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does
unconditional positive regard
a state of fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential
self-actualization, attitude of acceptance and respect on the part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does.
unconditional positive regard
anxiety & frustration, others' view of you is dependent on your behavior.
conditional positive regard
suggests that important components of personality are inherited
Biological approaches
basic, innate disposition, general activity level, mood, significant stability from infancy to adolescence
heritability of personality traits
social potency (forceful leader, likes to be center of attention) 61% genetic (identical twins research)
social closeness: enviormental
(prefers emotional intimacy and close ties; turns to others for comfort and help)
33% genetic
degree to which a person assumes mastery and leadership roles in social situations
social potency
Psychological tests
standard measures devised to assess behavior obejctively
ask about a relatively small sample of behavior: method of gathering data by asking them questions about a sample of their behavior
self-report measures
a test in which a person is shown an ambiguous stimulus and asked to describe it or tell a story about it
projective personality test
examples of projective personality tests
examples of self-report measures
Rorschach Test, TAT ( Thematic Apperception Test)
MMPI-2: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2: self-report test that identifies people whith psychological difficulties and is employed to predict some everyday behaviors
showing a series of symmetrical visual stimuli to people who then are asked what the figures represent to them
no clear image so the things you see must be "projected from inside yourself"
Rorschach Test
a test consisting of a series of pictures about which a person is asked to write a story
picture story interpretation
TAT (thematic apperception test)
direct measures of an individuals behavior used to describe characteristic indicative of personality
Behavioral Assessment
A persons response to events that are threatening or challenging
what makes something stressful?
perceived threat
Whal level of stressor is it?
cataclysmic: life changing effects many
personal:major life events, immediate negative consequences that fade with time, death of a family member
background: daily hassels, everyday annoyances, ex: traffic
How does stress effect you?
thoughts, feelings, physically (skin, breathing), behaviorally (sleep, diet, habits, patterns)
What can you do to cope with stress?
emotion focused coping
problem focused coping
a phenomenon in which victims of major catastophes or strong personal stressors fell long-lasting effects that may include reexperiencing the event in vivid flashbacks or dreams
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
minor positive events that make one feel good
a state in which people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlled a view of the world that becomes so ingrained that they cease trying to remedy the aversive circumstances, even if they actually can exert some influences
ex: teacher gives whatever grade so students dont try
learned helplessness
efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress
unconscious strategies people use to reduce anxiety by concealing its source from themselves and others
defence mechanisms
a person stops experiencing any emotions at all
emotional insulation
people try to manage their emotions in the face of stress, seeking to change the way they feel about or perceive a problem
ex: accepting sympathy, looking at the bright side
emotion-focused coping
attempts to modify the stressful problem or source of stress, changes to the behavior or to the development of a plan of action to deal with stress
ex: starting a study group to improve grades
problem-focused coping
wishful thinking, drug use, or alcohol use
avoidant coping
investigates the psychological factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems
health psychology
physical health
stress, behaviors and health related decions Ex: tanning, condom use ect.
Physical symptoms of stress
cardiovasular- heart pounding, racing, headaches
gastrointestinal: diarrhea, constipation, stomach aches, & cramping
skin: prespiration, rashes, acne
immune system: susceptibility to common colds & flu, allergy flare-ups
the response to events that threaten or challenge a person
recurring conflicts, traumatic experience, continuing pressures that seem uncontrollable, and small irritations
events or circumstances that trigger stress. name some common elements
stressors. change, uncertainty, pressure, conflict
medical problems that are influenced by an interaction or psychological, emotional, & physical difficulties
psychophysiological disorders
The general adaption syndrom
alarm and mobilization stage: oh No! become aware of stressor
Resistance stage: prep to fight stressor
ex: can't think
Exhaustion stage: negative consequences of the stress appear
the study of the relationship amoung psychological factors, the immune system, and the brain
psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress- related illness
ex: commitment, challenge, control
a mutual network of caring, interested others
social support
Researchers tips to coping with stress
turn threat into a challenge
make a threatening situation less threatening (view in different light, modify attitude)
change your goals (dancer becomes dance instructor)
take physical action (exercise)
prepare for stress before it happens
(arrange schedule to have more study time for upcoming exams)
Type A behavior pattern
show urgency aobut time
driven quality at work
hostile, verbally and nonverbally
Type B behavior pattern
less competitive
not especially time oriented
not usually aggressive, driven, or hostile
(more unlikely to have heart disease)
your expectation of whether you can control the things that happen to you
locus of control
those who beleive they are responsible for what happens to them
those who beleive they are victims of circumstances
benefits of control
difficult events are more tolerable if more predictable or controllable
limits of control
trying to control the uncontrollable is a problem and a source of stress
the effect to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threat that leads to stress
reactions that maintain a persons sense of control and self-worth by distorting or denying the actual nature of the situation
defense mechanisms
cessation of emotional experience
emotional insulation
attempts to modify the stressful problem of source of the stress
Ex: getting a tutor because dont want to look at math because dont know it
problem-focused coping
method of managing emotion in the face of stress by seeking to change the way they feel or perceive a problem
ex: bubble bath, talk to people
emotion-focused coping
examples of emotion-focused coping
prayer & meditation
relaxation training: learning to alternately tense and relax muscles, lie or sit quietly
lower stress hormones
massage therapy
effective cognitive coping methods
reappraising the situation
learning from the experience
making social comparisons
cultivatin a sense of humor
a deviation from the average
(a statistically based approach)
a deviatio from the ideal
(majority standard)
a sense of personal discomfort
the inability to funtion effectively
(societal demands)
a legal concept
major theoretical perspectives in psychology
cognitive: skewed perception
perspecives on abnormality
medical: physiological causes (hormone imbalance)
Psychoanalytic: childhood conflict over opposing wishes regarding sex & aggresion
Behavior perspective: learned response
cognitive perspective: cognitions (peoples thoughts & beliefs) are central to a persons abnormal behavior
Humanistic: emphasizes the responsiblity that people have for their own behavior
Sociocultural: peoples behavior both normal and abnormal is shaped by the kind of family group, society, & culture
standard system used in the US to diagnose & classify abnormal behavior devised (descriptive; doesnt suggest causes)
Diagnostic & statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV)
utilize 5 axes to describe condition
Axis I: clinical syndrom (ex schizophrenia)
Axis 5: global assesment of functioning
American psychiatric association
anxiety occurs without external justification & begins to affect a persons daily fuctioning
anxiety disorders
intense, irrational fears of specific objects or situations
phobic disorder
experience long term persistent anxiety
generalized anxiety disorder
anxiety that is not triggerd by any identifiable stimulus an d last from a few seconds to several hours
panic disorder
a persistent, unwanted thought or idea that keeps recurring
urge to repeatedly carry out some act that seems strange & unreasonable, even to the individual who experiences them
disorder characterized by obsessions and compulsions
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
psychological difficulties that take of a physical (somatic:body) form, but for which there is no medical cause
soatoform disorders
constant fear of illness & a peroccupation with their health
involves an actual physical disturbance, such as the inability to see or hear, or to move an arm or leg whose cause is puerly psychological
conversion disorder
parts of personality that are normally integrated and work together seperate or dissociate to reduce anxiety keep disturbing memoreies or perceptions from reaching conscious awarenss
dissociative disorders (break ties between severe or seperate) (3 disorders)
individual displays characteristics of 2 or more distinct personalities
dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality)
a disorder in which a significant selective memory loss occurs
amnesia (dissociatve)
an amnesiac condition where people take sudden, impulsive trips, sometimes assuming a new identity
fugure (dissociative)
disturbance sin emotional feeling strong enough to intrude on everyday life
mood disorders (4)
a mood disorder involving disturbances in: emotion (excessive sadness), behavior (loss of interest in ones usual activites), cognition (thoughts of hopelessness), body function (fatigue & loss of appetite)
symptoms of depression
depressed mood
reduced interest in almost all activites
significan weight gain or loss without dieting
sleep disturbance (insomnia or too much sleep)
change in motor activity (too much or too little)
fatigue or loss of energy
feelings of worthlessness or guilt
reduced ability to think or concentrate
recurrent thoughts of death

* 5 or more of these for 2 weeks
condition in which a person sequentially experiences periods of mania an depression
bipolar disorder
extended state of intense, wild elation
bipolar brain
rapid mood swings
PET scans show that brain energy consumption rises & falls with emotional swings
causes of mood disorders
biological: genetics/ heredity & brain chemistry
social: stressful circumstances of people's lives
attachment: problems w/ close relationships
cognitive: particular habits of thinking & ways of interpreting events
depressogenic attribution style
rumination: changes the way you view the world
psychoanalytic: feelings of loss, anger turned inward
learned helplessness
evolutionary theory: depression is an adaptive response to goals that are unattainable
vulnerability-stress model: indivdual vulnerabilities interact with external stresses or circumstances
class of disorders in which severe distortion or reality occurs
decline from a previous level of functioning
disturbances of thought & language
perceptual disorders
emotional disturbances
false beliefs, often of grandeur or persecution, that often accompany schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
an extreme mental disturbance involving distorted perceptions and irrational behavior, may have psychological or organic causes
sensory experiences that occur in the absence of actual stimulation
auditory, visual, tactile
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
cognitive, emotional, and behavioral excesses
ex: hallucinations, bizarre delusions, incoherent speech, inappropriate/ disorganized behaviors
negative symptoms of schizophrenia
cognitive, emotional, and behavioral deficits
ex: loss of motivaiton, emotional flatness, social withdrawl, slowed or no speech
preoccupation with delusions of hallucinations often with themes of persecution or grandiosity
disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropraite emotion, infantile behavior
immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativisim and or prrot like repeating of anothere's speech of movements
many and varied symptoms
genetice predisposition
(theory of schizophrenia)
the risk of developing schizophrenia increases as the genetic relatedness with a diagnosed schizophrenic increases
structural brain abnormalities (theory of schizophrenia)
decreased brain weight and volume
neurotransmitter abnormalities
(theory of schizophrenia)
especially increased dopamine activity
prenatal abnormalities (theory of schizophrenia)
damage ot brain, chemical, physical, injury
some part genetic some enviormental so stressors com into paly
vulnerability stress model
disoders characterized by inflexible maladaptive personality traits that do not permit the person to funciton appropriately as members of society
personality disorders
exaggerated sense of self-importance
narcissitic personality disorder
characterizedd by their difficulty in developing a secure sense of who they are (dont know boundaries, manipulative)
borderline personality disorder
characterized by habitually unreasonable and excessive suspiciousness & jealousy
paranoid personality disorder
a disorder charcterized by antisocial behavior such as lying stealing, manipulating others, and sometimes violence, and lack of guilt, shame, and empathy (sometimes called psychopathy or sociopathy)
antisocial personality disorder (APD)
what is the occurance of APD in males and females
3% of all males and 1% of females
DSM criteia for APD
repeatedly break the law
deceitful, using aliases & lies to con others
impulsive an unable to plan ahead
repeatedy get into physical fights or assaults
show reckless disregard for own safety
irresponsible, failint to meet obligations
lack or remorse

*must have 3 & a history of behaviors
causes of APD
abnormalities in CNS
genetically influenced problems with impulse control
brain damage
prevalence of psychological disorders
study of 8,000 people:
48% had experienced a disorder
17% depression
14% alcohol dependence
drug dependence, anxiety disorders
other cultures have different numbers some cultures bound syndromes
college students
stress 60%
situational 55%
relationship 55%
family issues 45%
depression 41%
Treatment in which a trained professional a therapist uses psychological techniques to help someone overcome psychological difficulties and disorders
relies on drugs and other medical procedures to improve psychological funcitoning
biomedical therapy
based on the premise that the primary unresolved conflicts and the possiblity that unacceptable unconscious impulses may enter consciousness
psychodynamic approaches to therapy
frequent sessions that last for many years
free association
dream interpretation
building on the basic processes of learning (classical and operant conditioning) poses that normal & abnormal behavior are learned
behavioral approaches to therapy
person rewarded for desired behavior with a toke that is later exchange d for something they want (behavioral therapies: operant conditioning)
token system
create unpleasant reacitons to stimuli that an individual previously enjoyed (behavioral therapies: classical conditioning)
aversive conditioning
gradual exposure to an anxiety producing stimulus is paired with relaxation in order to extinguish the response of anxiety (behavioral therapies: classical conditioning)
systematic desensitization
written agreement that outlines behavioral goals and positive consequences if achieved (behavioral therapies: operant conditioning)
contingency contracting
learning by watching others behavior (behavioral therapies: operant conditioning)
observational learning
cognitive approaches to therapy
assumption that anxiety, depressions, and negative emotions develop from maladaptive thought processes
Seek to change though patterns that lead to getting "stuck" by teaching client to challenge their sassumptions and adopt new approaches to old problems
Relatively short term focused on concrete problems
based on the assumption that people control their own behavior, can make choices about the kinds of life they want to lead, and are responsible for solving their own difficulties
humanistic approach to therapy
goals to enable people to reach their potetial for self actualization, unconditional positive regard
client-centered therapy
evaluation of psychotherapy
effective for most people
doesnt work for everyone
certain specific types of treatments are somewhat,although not invariablybetter for specific types of problems
no single form of therapy works best
therapeutic alliance is key
spontaneous remission (recovery w/ out treatment)
therapy that focuses on brain chemistry and other neurological factors
biological approaches to treatment
control of psychological disorders through drugs
drug therapy
a procedure in which an electric current of 70-150 volts is breifly administered to a patients head, causing a loss of consciousness and often seizures
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
brain surgery in which the object is to reduce symptoms of mental disorder- unsed only rarely today
surgically destroying or removing parts of a patients frontal lobes that were thought to control emotionality
prefrontal lobotomy
study of the influence of other people whether real imagined or implied on the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of the individual
social psychology
behavior is the function of the person and the situation
the outcome and take home message (ie what happened and what did we learn) A, B, C lines 70% of subjects went along with group and people that chose the right one felt uncomfortable
solomon Asch's conformity research
would you continue to shock someone if told to. 2/3 of subjects went all the way
milgrams obedience research
personalitys changed, guards were nice now became mean and prisoners started to stress, become zombies ect: lasted on 6 days because got to serious
zimbardos prison study