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164 Cards in this Set

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the relatively stable constellation of psychological characteristcs and behavioral patterns that account for our individuality and consistency over time.
psychoanalytic theory
freud's theory of personality, which holds that personality and behavior are shaped by unconscious forces and conflicts
in freudian theory, the part of the mind corresponding to the state of present awareness
to freud, the part of the mind whose contents can be brought into awareness through focused attention
in freudian theory, the part of the mind that lies outside the range of ordinary awareness and thta contains primitive drives or instincts and unacceptable urges, wishes, or ideas.
freud's term for the psychic structure existing in the unconscious that contains our basic animal drives and instinctual impulses
freud's term for the psychic structure that attempts to balance the instinctural demands of the id with social realities and expectations
freud's term for the psychic structure that corresponds to an internal moral guardian or conscience.
pleasure principle
in freud's theory, a governing principle of the id that is based on demand for instant gratification without regard to social rules or customs.
reality principle
in freudian theory, the governing principle of the ego that takes into account what is practical and acceptable in satisfying basic needs.
defense mechanisms
in feudian theory, the reality-distorting strategies of the ego to prevent awareness of anxiety-evoking or troubling ideas or impulses
in freudian theory, a type of defense mechanism involving motivated forgetting of anxiety-evoking material
in freudian theory, a defense mechanism involving the failure to recognize a threatening impulse or urge.
reaction formation
in freudian theory, a defense mechanism involving behavior that stands in opposition to one's true motives and desires so as to prevent conscious awareness of them.
in freudian theory, a defense mechanism involving the use of self-justification to explain away unacceptable behavior, impulses, or ideas.
in freudian theory, a defense mechanism involving the projection of one's own unacceptable impulses, wishes, or urges, onto another person
in freudian theory, a defense mechanism involving the channeling of unacceptable impulses into socially sanctioned behaviors or interests
in freudian theory, a defense mechanism in which an individual, usually under high levels of stress, reverts to a behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development
in freudian theory, a defense mechanism in which an unacceptable sexual or aggressive impulse is transferred to an object or person that is safer or less threatening than the original objects of the impulse
erogenous zones
parts of the body that are especially sensitive to sexual or pleasurable stimulation
constellations of personality traits characteristic of a particular stage of psychosexual development, resulting from either excessive or inadequate gratification at that stage
oral stage
in freudian theory, the first stage of psychosexual development, during which the infant seeks sexual gratification through oral stimulation (sucking, mouthing, and biting)
anal stage
in freudian theory, the second stage of psychosexual development, during which sexual gratification is centered on processes of elimination (retention and release of bowel contents)
anal-retentive personality
in freudian theory, a personality type characterized by perfectionism and excessive needs for self-control as expressed through extreme neatness and punctuality
anal-expulsive personality
in freudian theory, a personality type characterized by messiness, lack of self-discipline, and carelessness
phallic stage
in freudian theory, the third stage of psychosexual development, marked by erotic attention on the phallic region (penis in boys, clitoris in girls) and the development of the Oedipus complex.
Oedipus Complex
in freudian theory, the psychological complex in which the young boy or girl develops incestuous feelings toward the parent of the opposite gender and perceives the parent of the the same gender as a rival
Electra complex
the term given by some psychodynamic theorists to the form of the Oedipus complex in young girls.
castration anxiety
in freudian theory, unconscious fear of removal of the penis as punishment for having unacceptable sexual impulses
penis envy
in freudian theory, jealousy of boys for having a penis
latency stage
in freudian theory, the fourth stage of psychosexual development, during which sexual impulses remain latent or dormant
genital stage
in freudian theory, the fifth and final stage of psychosexual development, which begins around puberty and corresponds to the development of mature sexuality and emphasis on procreation
personal unconscious
jung's term for an unconscious region of mind comprising a resesrvoir of the individual's repressed memories and impulses
collective unconscious
in jung's theory, a part of the mind containing ideas and archetypal images shared among humankind that have been transmitted genetically from ancestral humans
jung's term for the primitive images contained in the collective unconscious that reflect ancestral or universal experiences of human beings
individual psychology
adler's theory of personality, which emphasizes the unique potential of each individual
creative self
in adler's theory, the self-aware part of personality that organizes goal-seeking efforts
inferiority complex
in adler's theory, the feelings of inadequacy or inferiority in young children that influence their developing personalities and create desires to overcome
drive for superiority
adler's term for the motiviation to compensate for feelings of inferiority.
basic anxiety
in horney's theory, a deep-seated form of anxiety in children that is associated with feelings of being isolated and helpless in a world perceived as potentially threatening and hostile.
basic hostility
in horney's theory, deep feelings of resentment that children may harbor toward their parents.
relatively enduring personal charactistics
cardinal traits
allport's term for the more pervasive dimensions that define an individual's general personality
central traits
allport's term for personality characteristics that have a widespread influence on the individual's behavior across situations
secondary traits
allport's term for specific traits that influence behavior in relatively few situations
surface traits
cattell's term for personality traits at the surface level that can be gleaned from observations of behavior
source traits
cattell's term for traits at a deep level of personality that are not apparent in observed behavior but must be inferred based on underlying relationships among surface traits
one of the three underlying dimensions of personality in Eysenck's model, referring to tendencies toward being solitary and reserved on teh one end or outgoing and sociable on the other end
one of the three underlying dimensions of personality in Eysenck's model, referring to tendencies toward emotional instability, anxiety, and worry
one of the three underlying dimensions of personality in Eysenck's model, referring to tendencies to be perceived as cold and antisocial
five-factor model
the dominant contemporary trait model of personality, consisting of five broad personality factors: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
social-cognitive theory
a contemporary learning-based model that emphasizes the roles played by both cognitive factors and environmental or situational factors in determining behavior
in social-cognitive theory, personal predictions about the outcomes of behavior
subjective value
in social-cognitive theory, the importance that individuals place on desired outcomes
locus of control
in rotter's theory, one's general expectancies about whether one's efforts can bring about desired outcomes or reinforcements
reciprocal determinism
bandura's model in which cognitions, behaviors, and environmental factors both influence and are influenced by each other.
outcome expectations
bandura's term for our personal predictions about the outcomes of our behavior
efficacy expectations
bandura's term for the expectancies we have regarding our ability to perform behaviors we set out to accomplish
situation variables
mischel's term for environmental influences on behavior, such as rewards and punishments
person variables
mischel's term for internal personal factors that influence behavior, including competencies, expectancies, and subjective values.
rogers's model of personality which focuses on the importance of the self
unconditional positive regard
valuing another person as having intrinsic worth, regardless of the person's behavior at the particular time
conditional positive regard
valuing a person only when the person's behavior meets certain expectations or standards
rogers's term for the idealized sense of how or what we should be
collectivistic culture
a culture that emphasizes people's social roles and obligations
individualistic culture
a culture that emphasizes individual identity and personal accomplishments
the now-discredited view that one can judge a person's character and mental abilities by measuring the bumps on his or her head
personality tests
structured psychological tests that use formal methods of assessing personality
self-report personality inventories
structured psychological tests in which individuals are given a limited range of response options to answer a set of questions about themselves
objective tests
tests of personality that can be scored objectively and that are based on a research foundation
standard scores
scores that represent an individual's relative deviation from the mean of the standardization sample
projective tests
personality tests in which ambiguous or vague test materials are used to elicit responses that are blieved to reveal a person's unconscious needs, drives, and motives
perceptions experienced in the absence of external stimuli
fixed but patently false beliefs, such as believing that one is being hounded by demons
culture-bound syndromes
psychological disorders found in only one or a few cultures
Dhat syndrome
a culture-bound syndrom found in Indian in which men develop intense fear about losing semen
medical model
a framework for understanding abnormal behavior patterns as symptoms of underlying physical disorders or diseases
biopsychosocial model
an integrative model for explaining abnormal behavior patterns in terms of the interactions of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors
diathesis-stress model
a type of biopsychosocial model that relates the development of disorders to the combination of a diathesis, or predisposition, usually genetic in origin, and exposure to stressful events or life circumstances
a vulnerability or predisposition to developing a disorder
psychological disorders
abnormal behavior patterns characterized by disturbances in behavior, thinking, perceptions, or emotions that are associated with significant personal distress or impaired functioning
anxiety disorders
a class of psychological disorders characterized by excessive or inappropriate anxiety reactions
excessive fears of particular objects or situation
social phobia
a type of anxiety disorder involving excessive fear of social situations
specific phobia
phobi reactions involving specific situations or objects
excessive fear of heights
excessive fear of enclosed spaces
excessive, irrational fear of being in public places
panic disorder
a type of anxiety disorder involving repeated episodes of sheer terror called panic attacks
gerneralized anxiety disorder (GAD)
a type of anxiety disorder involving persistent and generalized anxiety and worry
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
a type of anxiety disorder involving the repeated occurrence of obsessions and/or compulsions
anxiety sensitivity
fear of fear, involving excessive concern that anxiety cymptoms will spin out of control
dissociative disorders
a class of psychological disorders involving changes in consciousness, memory, or self-identity
somatoform disorders
a class of psychological disorders involving physical ailments or complaints that cannot be explained by organic causes
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
a type of dissociative disorder characterized by the appearance of multiple personalities in the same individual
conversion disorder
a type of somatoform disorder characterized by a change or a loss of a physical function that cannot be explained by medical causes
a somatoform disorder in which there is excessive concern that one's physical complaint are signs of underlying serious illness.
secondary gain
the reward value of having a psychological or physical symptom, such as release from ordinary responsibilities
mood disorders
a class of psychological disorders involving disturbances in mood states, such as major depression and bipolar disorder
major depressive disorder
the most common type of depressive disorder, characterized by periods of downcast mood, feelings of worthlessness, and loss of interest in pleasurable activities
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
a type of major depression that involves a recurring pattern of winter depressios followed by elevations of mood in the spring and summer
dysthymic disorder
a type of psychological disorder characterized by mild but chronic depression
bipolar disorder
a type of mood disorder characterized by mood swings from extreme elation (mania) to sever depression
manic episodes
periods of mani, or unusually elevated mood and extreme restlessness
cyclothymic disorder
a mood disorder characterized by a chronic pattern of relatively mild mood swings
learned helplessness model
the view that depression results from the perception of a lack of control over the reinforcements in one's life that may result from exposure to uncontrollable negative events
attributional style
a person's characteristic way of explaining outcomes of events in his or her life
depressive attributional style
a characteristic way of explaining negative events in terms of internal, stable, and global causes
disinhibition effect
the removal of normal restraints or inhibitions that serve to keep impulsive behavior in check
a severe and chronic psychological disorder characterized by disturbances in thinking, perception, emotions, and behavior
psychotic disorder
a psychological disorder, such as schizophrenia, characterized by a "break" with reality
thought disorder
a breakdown inteh logical structure of through and speech, revealed in the form of a lossening of associations
positive symptoms
symptoms of schizophrenia involving behavioral excesses, such as hallucinations and delusions
negative symptoms
behavior deficits associated with schizophrenia, such as withdrawal and apathy.
disorganized type
a subtype of schizophrenia characterized by confused behavior and disorganzed delusions, among other features
catatonic type
a subtype of schizophrenia characterized by bizarre movements, postures, or grimaces
waxy flexibility
a feature of catatonic schizophrenia in which people rigidly maintain the body position or psture in which they were place by others
paranoid type
the most common subtype of schizophrenia, characterized by the appearance of delusional thinking accompanied by frequent auditory hallucinations
personality disorders
a class of psychological disorders characterized by rigid personality traits that impair people's ability to adjust to the demands they face in the environment and that interfere with their relationships with others
narcissistic personality disorder
a type of personality disorder characterized by a grandiose sense of self
paranoid personality disorder
a type of personality disorder characterized by extreme suspiciousness or mistrust of others
schizoid personality disorder
a type of personality disorder characterized by social aloofness and limited range of emotional expression
borderline personality disorder
a type of personality disorder characterized by unstable emotions and self-image
antisocial personality disorder
a type of personality disorder characterized by callous attitudes toward others and by antisocial and irresponsible behavior
moral therapy
a philosophy of treatment that emphasized treating mentally ill people with compassion and understanding, rather than shackling them in chains.
a policy of reducing the population of mental hospitals by shifting care from inpatient facilities to community-based outpatient facilities.
a verbal form of therapy derived from a psychological framework that consists of one or more treatment sessions with a therapist
freud's method of psychotherapy; it focuses on uncovering and working through the unconscious conflicts he believed were at the root of psychological problems
practitioners of psychoanalysis who are schooled in the freudian tradition
free association
a technique in psychoanalysis in which the clients is encouraged to say anything that comes to mind
dream analysis
a technique in psychoanalysis in which the therapist attempts to analyze the underlying or symbolic meaning of the client's dreams
in psychoanalysis, the attmept by the therapist to explain the connections between the material the client discloses in therapy and his or her unconscious conflicts
in freud's theory, the awareness of underlying, unconscious wishes and conflicts
in psychoanalysis, the blocking that occurs when therapy touches upon anxiety-evoking thoughts or feelings
transference relationship
in therapy, the tendency of clients to reenact earlier conflicted relationships in the relationship they develop with their therapists
the tendency for therapists to relate to clients in ways that mirror their relationships with important figure in their own lives
behavior therapy
a form of therapy that involves the systematic application of the principles of learning
systematic desensitization
a behavior therapy technique for treating phobias through the pairing of exposure in imagination to fear-inducing stimuli and states of deep relaxation
fear hierarchy
an ordered series of increasingly fearful objects or situations
gradual exposure
a behavior therapy technique for treating phobias based on direct exposure to a series of increasingly fearful stimuli
a behavior therapy technique for overcoming phobias and acquiring more adaptive behaviors, based on observing and imitating models
aversive conditioning
a form of behavior therapy in which stimuli associated with undesirable behavior are paired with aversive stimuli to create a negative reponse to these stimuli
cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
a form of therapy that combines behavioral and cognitive treatment techniques
rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
developed by Albert Ellis, a form of psychotherapy based on identifying and correcting irrational beliefs that are believed to underlie emotional and behavioral difficulties
cognitive therapy
developed by Aaron Beck, a form of therapy based on a collaborative effort between clients and terapists that helps clients recognize and correct distored patterns of thinking believed to underlie their emotional problems
eclectic therapy
a therapeutic approach that draws upon principles and techniques representing different schools of therapy
group therapy
a form of therapy in which clients are treated within a group format
family therapy
therapy for troubled families that focuses on changing disruptive patterns of communication and improving the ways in which family members relate to each other
couple therapy
therapy that focuses on helping distressed couples resolve their conflicts and develop more effective communication skills
a statistical technique for averaging results across a large numbers of studies
nonspecific factors
general features of psychotherapy, such as attention from a therapist and mobilization of positive expectancies or hope
placebo effects
positive outcomes of an experiment resulting from participants' expectations about the effects of a treatment rather thanfrom the experimental treatment itself
virtual reality therapy
a form of behavior therapy in which virtual reality is used to simulate real-world environments that can be used as therapeutic tools
psychotropic drugs
psychiatric drugs used in the treatment of psychological or mental disorders
antianxiety drugs
drugs that combat anxiety
drugs that combat depression by affecting the levels or activity of neurotransmitters in the brain
a class of antidepressant drugs that increase the availability of neurotransmitters in the brain by interfering with the reuptake of these chemicals by transmitting neurons
monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors
a class of antidepressant drugs that increase the availability of neurotransmitters in the brain by inhibiting an enzyme, monoamine oxidase, that breaks down or degrades them in the synapse
selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
a class of antidepressant drugs that work specifically on increasing availability of the neurostransmitter serotonin by interfering with its reuptake
drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders that help alleviate hallucinations and delusional thinking
tardive dyskinesia (TD)
a potentially disabling motor disorder that may occur following regular use of antipsychotic drugs.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
a form of therapy for severe depression that involves the administration of an electrical shock to the head
brain surgery used to control violent or deviant behavior
prefrontal lobotomy
a surgical procedure in which neural pathways in the brain are severed in order to control violent or aggressive behavior