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50 Cards in this Set

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Albert Bandura's belief that a person's behavior is both influenced by and is influencing a person's personal factors and the environment.
Reciprocal Determinism
Any readily identifiable stable quality that characterizes how an individual differs from other individuals.
Trait
A category or broad collection of personality traits that are loosely interrelated.
Type
A statistical procedure for analyzing groups of variables (factors) to detect which are related.
Factor analysis
Major Proponent of Psychodynamic Approach
Freud
Major Proponent of Behavioral Approach
Skinner
Major Proponent of Trait and Type Approaches
Allport, Cattel, Eysenck
Major Proponent of Humanistic Approaches
Maslow, Rogers
Major Proponent of Cognitive Approaches
Kelly, Rotter, Bandura, Mischel
Basis of Personality: The id maximizes gratification while minimizing punishment or guilt; instinctual unconscious urges direct behavior.
Psychodynamic Approach
Basis of Personality: Patterns of behaviors are learned through experience with the environment.
Behavioral Approach
Basis of Personality: Traits organize a person’s responses in characteristic modes.
Trait and Type Approaches
Basis of Personality: The individual enhances the experiences of life through the process of self actualization.
Humanistic Approaches
Basis of Personality: Ways of thinking and acting develop in response to a changing environment.
Cognitive Approaches
Cause of Problems: Conflicts between the id, ego, and super ego, resulting in fixations.
Psychodynamic Approach
Cause of Problems: Faulty or inappropriate behaviors learned through experience with the environment.
Behavioral Approach
Cause of Problems: Having learned fault or inappropriate traits.
Trait and Type Approaches
Cause of Problems: Incongruence between self-concept and ideal self.
Humanistic Approaches
Cause of Problems: Inappropriate thoughts or faulty reasoning.
Cognitive Approaches
Development: Five stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital.
Psychodynamic Approach
Development: Process of learning new responses.
Behavioral Approach
Development: Genetic factors and learning.
Trait and Type Approaches
Development: Process of cumulative self actualization and development of sense of self-worth.
Humanistic Approaches
Development: Process of thinking about new responses.
Cognitive Approaches
The extent to which people are worried or calm, nervous or at ease, insecure or secure.
Neuroticism-stability
The extent to which people are social or unsocial, talkative or quiet, affectionate or reserved.
Extraversion-introversion
The extent to which people are open to experience or closed, independent or conforming, creative or uncreative, daring or timid.
Openness to experience
The extent to which people are good-natured or irritable, courteous or rude, flexible or stubborn, lenient or critical.
Agreeableness-antagonism
The extent to which people are reliable or undependable, careful or careless, punctual or late, well organized or disorganized.
Conscientious-undirectedness
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
-Self-Actualization Needs
-Esteem Needs
-Love and Belongingness Needs
-Safety/Security Needs
-Physiological Needs
In humanistic theory, the highest level of psychological development, in which one strives to realize one’s uniquely human potential to achieve everything one is capable of achieving.
Self-actualization
A relatively permanent change in an organism that occurs as a result of experiences in the environment.
Learning
A systematic procedure through which associations and responses to specific stimuli are learned.
Conditioning
Automatic behavior that occurs involuntarily in response to a stimulus, without prior learning, and usually shows little variability from one instance to another.
Reflex
Conditioning process in which an originally neutral stimulus, through repeated pairing with a stimulus that naturally elicits a response, comes to elicit a similar or even identical response; AKA Pavlovian conditioning.
Classical conditioning
A stimulus that normally produces an involuntary response.
Unconditioned stimulus
An unlearned or involuntary response to an unconditioned stimulus.
Unconditioned response
A neutral stimulus that, through repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus, begins to elicit a conditioned response.
Conditioned stimulus
The response elicited by a conditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Response
Cognitive Diagram
<-Learn-><-Personal Factor-><-Environment->
Formula for IQ
(MA/CA) X 100=IQ
Sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, and meanings of words; sensitivity to the different functions of language.
Exemplar: Poet, Journalist
Linguistic
Core Components: Sensitivity to and capacity to discern logical or numerical patterns; ability to handle long chains of reasoning.
Exemplar: Scientist, Mathematician
Logical-mathematical
Core Components: Ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch, and timbre; appreciation of the forms of musical expressiveness.
Exemplar: Composer, Violinist
Musical
Core Components: Capacity to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately and to perform transformations on initial perceptions
Exemplar: Navigator, Sculptor
Spatial
Core Components: Ability to control bodily movements and to handle objects skillfully.
Exemplar: Dancer, Athlete
Bodily-kinesthetic
Core Components: Capacity to discern and respond appropriately to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and desires of other people.
Exemplar: Therapist, Salesperson
Interpersonal
Core Components: Ability to access one’s own feelings and to discriminated among them and draw on them to guide their behavior; knowledge of one’s own strengths, weaknesses, desires, and intelligence.
Exemplar: Person with detailed, accurate self-knowledge.
Intrapersonal
The ability to both perceive and express emotions in accurate and adaptive ways.
Emotional intelligence
4 Aspects of Emotional Intelligence
1. the ability to perceive emotions in oneself and in others,
2. the ability to use emotions to facilitate thought
3. the ability to understand emotional information and its impact
4. the ability to manage emotions, both one’s own and those of others