Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/70

Click to flip

70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
hypothesis
a testable prediction
survey
a self reported measure
sampling
take samples of the population and generalize the findings to all people
naturalistic observation
observe and record behavior in natural situations
correlation
a degree of statistical relationship b/w 2 attributes, which usually is expressed as a number on a scale that ranges from -1 to 0 to 1.
Sympathetic Nervous System
controlled by a chain of neurons lying just outside the spinal cord, increases heart rate and breathing rate and readies the body for vigorous fight-or-flight activities
parasympathetic
controlled by neurons at the very top and very bottom levels of the spinal cord, decreases heart rate, increases digestive activities, adn in general promotes activities of the body that take place during rest.
nervous system
consists of nerve cells and is an electrochemical communication system.
central nervous system
the brain and the spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
axon
an extension of the neuron through which electrical messages pass
dendrite
tree like branches that recieve messages and conduct impulses to the cell.
synapse
tiny gaps b/w terminal buttons and a dendrite of another neuron
action potential
electrical charge "all or none"
myelin sheath
a layer of fatty tissue the enables faster transmission of electrical messages
change blindness
do not notice changes in our environment
encoding
put info into the brain
storage
keep info in the brain
retrieval
get info back from brain
rehearsal
repeat information
mneumonics
memory aids that tie in imagery to help you recall information
serial position effect
a tendency to recall the first and last items in a list and not so much the middle
spacing effect
spacing out practicing or studying will lead to better memory than a cram session
phoneme
set of basic sounds that can be distinguished perceptually, the smallest distinctive sound unit
morpheme
the smallest unit that carries meaning. It could be a whole word or part of a word
babbling stage
3-4 months; utter various sounds not particular to any language
one-word stage
1 year; speak using single words
two-word stage
talk in pairs of words, usually a noun and a verb
telegraphic speech
like a telegram, short and to the point
aptitude tests
predict a person's future performance by measuring your ability to learn new things
achievement tests
designed to assest what you have learned
needs
an internal deficiency
drive
psychological expression of those needs
consciousness
awaremess of internal and external stimuli
sleep stage 1
a transition phase from awake to light sleep that lasts only a few minutes. Breathing and heart rate slow and muscle tension decreases. Alpha waves present with some theta. Hypnic jerks
sleep stage 2
lasts about 10-25 minutes and brain waves show sleep spindles - bursts of higher frequency brain waves. Theta waves
sleep stages 3 and 4
slow wave sleep and delta waves show up. you stay here about 30 minutes.
REM sleep
rapid eye movement, breathing and pulse and irregular but there is no muscle tone, deepest sleep, but brain waves are high fequency, which is a paradox
insomnia
chronic problems in getting enough sleep
narcolepsy
marked by sudden onsets of sleep during normal waking hours
sleep apnea
frequent, reflexive gaspingfor air that awakens the person and thus disrupts sleep
nightmares
anxiety arrousing dreams that lead to awakening from REM sleep.
night terrors
awakenings from nonREM sleep accompanied by autonomic arousal and panic
somnambulism
sleep walking
spontaneous recovery
temporary return of the conditioned response
extinction
remove connection between UCS and CR, repeatedly present the conditioned stimulus w/o the UCS.
reinforcement
an event that increases the future probability of that response
punishment
an event that decreases the probability of a response
shaping
establishing a new response by reinforcing successive approximations to it.
Id
primitive, instinctive component that operates on the pleasure principle. the id is primitive, illogical, and irrational.
pleasure principle
deamands immediate immediate gratification of those urges
Ego
decision making component that operates on the reality principle. The ego mediates the id to be able to handle the social world
reality principle
considers social realities of norms, etiquette, rules and customs to find ways to gratify the id.
superego
moral component that incorporates social standards such as right and wrong
defense meachanisms
unconscious reactions to relieve anxiety
rationalization
creating false but plausible excuses to justify behavior
repression
keeping distressing thoughts buried in the unconscious
projection
attributing your own thoughts and feelings to another person
displacement
diverting feelings onto another person
reaction formation
behaving in a way that's exactly the opposite of your true feelings
regression
reversion to immature patterns of behavior
identification
bolstering self esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with a person or group
DSM IV
Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition
scizophrenia
psychological disorder in which the person loses touch with reality adn has hallucinations, delusions and inappropriate emotions
bipolar
manic depressive disorder; wildly excited and then deeply depressed
phobia
an intense irrational fear associated with a specific object, situation or activity
ingroup
a group that one belongs to and identifies with
outgroup
a group that one does not belong to or identify
Fundamental attribution error
refers to observer's bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others' behavior
Milgram's study
wanted to study the tendency to obey authority figures; teacher and learner; test subject administeredshocks to innocent victim b/c he was instucted to by the experimenter. Shocks were fake. more people obeyed than he thought