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114 Cards in this Set

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Unique and unchanging psychological characteristics/behaviors
Personality
A means used by the ego to defend against anxiety and to maintain self-esteem
defense mechanism
A defense mechanism in which one involuntarily removes painful or threatening memories, thoughts, or perceptions from consciousness or prevents unconscious sexual and aggressive impulses from breaking into consciousness.
~Most commonly used ego defense mechanism
Repression
5 stages of psycho development
1)Oral = mouth (1 to 3 years old)
2)Anal= elimination (3 to 6 years old)
3)Phallic= genitals (3 to 6 years old)
4)Latency= none (6 years to puberty)
5)Genitals= genitals (puberty on)
For Freud, the primary motivating force of human behavior, containing repressed memories as well as instincts, wishes, and desires that have never been conscious.
Unconscious
The Neo-Freudians
Carl Jung
Alfred Adler
Karen Horney
Three components- the external environment, individual behaviors, and cognitive factors, such as beliefs, expectancies, and personal dispositions - are all infulenced by each other and play reciprocal roles in determining personality
~The fact that our cognitions, behaviors, and traits all interact & influence each other.
Bandura's cognitive approach
Rotter's concept of a cognitive factor that explains how people account for what happens in their lives - either internal or external
Locus of Control
Someone who believes they determine their own destiny
~seeing themselves as primarily in control of their behavior and its consequences
Internal Locus of Control
~perceiving what happens to them to be in the hands of fate, luck or chance
External Locus of Control
Pass
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People with this locus of control are more likely to have a better academic success.
Internal
Humanistic vs psychoanalytic

More optimistic, more sensitive to emotional experience and more often criticized as being difficult to test scientifically
Humanistic Personality and perspective
Humanistic vs. psychoanalytic

People are more selfish, learning theories
Psychoanalytic theories
Humanistic personality

Developing to one's fullest potential
Self-actualization
Humanistic persoanality

Conditions on which the positive regard of others rests.
Conditions of Worth
Humanistic Personality
Unqualified caring and nonjudgmental acceptance of another

Psychiatrists have to do this w/ patients.
Unconditional Positive regard
Cattell's 16 Personality Factors
Idea that they can tell through factor and analysis, can predict a person's behavior that is made up of this.
A personal quality or characteristic, which is stable across situations, that is used to describe or explain personality
Trait
A trait theory that attempts to explain personality using five broad dimensions, each of which is composed of a constellation of personality traits.
Five-Factor Theory (Big 5)
Big 5 proponents:
1) Extroversion
2) Neuroticism
3) Conscientiousness
4) Agreeableness
5) Openness to Experience
Big 5

Extroversion
Ppl who are outgoing and social to those who are quiet
Big 5

Neuroticism
High Neuroticism are prone to emotional instability: Anxious ppl to those who are more stable and calm
Big 5

Conscientiousness
Dependable, organized to those who are impulsive, unreliable, disorganized etc.
Big 5

Agreeableness
High in Agreeableness would be pleasant and good natured to those w/ low are unfriendly, argumentative, cold etc.
Big 5

Openness to Experience
Those who are imaginative, curious to those who are concrete-minded and practical
Measure the Big 5
NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) or new: (NEO-PI-R)

Used for personality research studies
A measure of a culture's emphasis on either individual achievement or social relationships.
Individualism/collectivism dimensions
Personality assessment methods and the 3 major categories
1) Observation, rating scales, interviews
2) Personality inventories MMPI
3)Projective Tests (give ink blot and ask to tell you something about it)
Most widely used personality inventory
~Used to screen for and diagnose psychiatric problems and disorders.
MMPI
(Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
A paper-and-pencil test with questions about a person's thoughts, feelings and behaviors, which measures several dimensions of personality and can be scored according to a standard procedure
Inventory
A personality test in which people respond to inkblots, drawings of ambiguous human situations, or incomplete sentences by projecting their inner thoughts, feelings, fears, or conflicts onto the test materials.
Projective Tests
Most commonly used projective test:
Rorshach Inkblot Method which is second popular to MMPI
A projective test composed of 10 inkblots that the test taker is asked to describe; used to assess personality, make differential diagnoses, plan and evaluate treatment, and predict behavior.
Rorschach Inkblot Method
The influence of heredity on personality
Don't inherit personality, hereditary puts constraints but doesn't determine.
Adopted children's personalities are more like biological parents
however, heredity does play a small factor
Mental processes and/or behavior patterns that causes emotional distress and/or impairs functioning
Psychological Disorders
5 perspectives of Psychological Disorders

(pg 507)
1)Psychodynamic
2)Learning Approach
3)Cognitive Approach
4)Bio Psycho Social
5)Biological Approach
Psychological disorders characeterized by frequent fearful thoughts about what might happen in the future.
Anxiety Disorders
An anxiety disorder in which people experience chronic, excessive worry for 6 months or more.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
An episode of overwhelming anxiety, fear, or terror
Panic Attack
An anxiety disorder in which a person experiences recurring unpredictable episodes of over-whelming anxiety, fear , or terror
Panic Disorder
A persistent irrational fear of some specific object, situation, or activity that poses little or no real danger.
ex: fear of clowns, cats etc.
Phobias
An intense fear of being in a situation from which escape is not possible or in which help would not be available if one experienced overwhelming anxiety or a panix attack.
Agoraphobia
A marked fear of a specific object or situation; a general label for any phobia other than agoraphobia and social phobia
Specific Phobia
An irrational fear and avoidance of any social or performance situation in which one might embarrass or humiliate oneself in front of others by appearing clumsy, foolish, or incompetent
Social Phobias
An anxiety disorder in which a person suffers from recurrent obsessions and/or compulsions
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
A persistant, involuntary thought, image, or impulse that invades consciousness and causes great distress.
Obsession
A persistant, irresistable, and irrational urge to perform an act or ritual repeatedly.
Compulsion
Disorders characterized by extreme and unwarranted disturbances in emotion or mood.
Mood Disorders
A mood disorder marked by feelings of great sadness, despair, and hoplessness as well as the loss of the ability to experience pleasure
Major Depressive Disorder
So deep into depression that they might experience delusions
Psychotic Depression
Alternating bouts of mania (euphoria) & depression
A mood disorder in which manic episodes alternate with periods of depression, usually with relativley normal periods in between.
Bipolar Disorder
A period of excessive euphoria, inflated self-esteem, wild optimism, and hyperactivity, often accompanied by delusions of grandeur and by hostility if activity is blocked
Manic episode
Van Gogh's assumed diagnosis
Bipolar

Hint were his paintings
Are clues usually given in suicides?
Yes, mostly 90% of the time
A severe psychological disorder characterized by loss of contact with reality, hallucinations, delusions, inappropriate or flat affect, some disturbance in thinking social withdrawal, and/or other bizarre behavior.
Disordered/"split" thoughts and communication, inappropriate emotions
Schizophrienia
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia (present)
Hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, thought and behavior
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia (absent)
Lack of emotional response, limited speech, apathy
Types of schizophrenia (4)
1)Paranoid = suspiciousness, delusions
2)Undifferentiative schitzo
3)Disorganized = bizarre and childlike
4)Catatonic = "waxy flexibility"
A type of schizophrenia characterized by delusions of grandeur or persecution
Paranoid Schizophrenia
The most serious type of schizophrenia, marked by extreme social withdrawal, hallucinations, delusions, silliness, inappropriate laughter, grotesque mannerisms, and other bizarre behavior
Disorganized Schizophrenia
A type of schizophrenia characterized by complete stillness or stupor or great excitement and agitation; patients may assume an unusual posture and remain in it for long periods of time
Catatonic Schizophrenia
A catchall term used when schizophrenic symptoms either do not conform to the criteria of any one type of schizophrenia or conform to more than one type
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
Disorders in which physical symptoms are present that are due to psychological causes rather than any known medical condition.
Somatoform Disorders
A somatoform disorder in which persons are preoccupied with their health and fear that their physical symptoms are a sign of some serious disease, despite reassurance from doctors to the contrary
Hypochondriasis
A somatoform disorder in which a person suffers a loss of motor or sensory functioning in some part of the body; the loss has no physical cause but solves some psychological problem
Conversion Disorder
A long-standing, inflexible, maladaptive pattern of behaving and relating to others, which usually begins in early childhood or adolescence
Personalitiy Disorder
Hallucinations: out of auditory and visual, which one is more common
Auditory ( more likely to hear voices)
Treatment for emotional and behavioral disorders that uses psychological rather than biological means
Psychotherapy
Roger's person-centered therapy
Believed in where the person decides what happens and not the therapist

Longer time in therapy, the better you get
The 4 Types of Problems That Interpersonal therapy can help:
1) Death of Loved One
2) Some kind of role dispute
3) Life Transition
4) Helping with interpersonal skills
The therapy of choice for those who think abnormal behavior is learned
Behavioral Therapy
A brief psychotherapy designed to help depressed people better understand and cope with problems relating to their interpersonal relationships.
Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)
A treatment approach that is based on the idea that abnormal behavior is learned and that applies the principles of operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and /or observational learning to eliminate inappropriate or maladaptive behaviors and replace them with more adaptive responses
Behavior Therapy
Self Helping Groups (ex: AA)
AA whole idea is it isnt led by a trained professional
A behavior modification technique that rewards appropriate behavior with tokens that can be exchanged later for desired goods and/or privaleges
When they don't get rewareded right waway and get a token instead. Later they can exchange the token for something else. (ex: poker chips, gold star and NOT candy)
Token economy
Remove them from their reinforcement
A behavior modification techinque used to eliminate undesirable behavior, espeically in children and adolescents, y withdrawing all reinforcers for a period of time.
Time Out
A behavior therapy based on classical conditioning and used to treat phobias by exposing clients to the feared object or event (or asking them to imagine it vividly) for an extended period, until their anxiety decreases.
Flooding
A behavior therapy that is based on classical conditioning and used to treat fears by training clients in deep muscle relaxation and then having them confront a graduated series of anxiety producing situations (real or imagined) until they can remain relaxed while confronting even the most feared situation.
Systematic Desensitization
Which disorder Beck's cognitive therapy is best
Depression (specifically moderate depression)
Class of Drugs prescribed for schizophrenia
Anti Psychotics
"Wonder Drug" for bipolar disease
Lithium
How modern ECT differs from the original form
Act originaly used for whole brain and now it is only for right hemisphere. Kown as unilateral and tests right side of brain.
A biological therapy in which an electric current is passed through the right hemisphere of the brain; usually reserved for severely depressed patients who are suicidal
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
The 3 Types of Behavior Therapies
1) Behavior Modification based on classical
2) Operant
3) Modeling
Two Major types of disorders for which antidepressants are prescribed
Depression
Anxiety
Only method that can be used to identify cause and effect relationships
The Experimental Method
Whether the spinal cord can influence behavior without the brain's involvemtn
Yes
EX: hand on hot stove, react much more quickly
The lighting conditions in which rocds or cones work best
Cones: Under bright light and color
Rods: Under low levels of illumination; night
How much sleep does the average teen get?
7.2
Schedules of Reinforcement (5)
1)The Fixed-Ratio Schedule
2)The Variable-Ratio Schedule
3)The Fixed-Interval Schedule
4)The Variable-Interval Schedule
5)The Effect of Continuous and Partial Reinforcement on Extinction
Rat presses bar and third time gets food, every bar pressed next time it is once five times and then two etc.
A schedule in which a reinforcer is given after a fixed number of correct, nonreinforced responses.
Fixed-Ratio Schedule
A schedule in which a reinforcer is given after a varying number of nonreinforced responses, based on an average ratio
Highest response rate
Variable-ratio Schedule
A schedule in which a reinforcer is given following the first correct response after a specific period of time has elapsed.
lowest response rate
Fixed-Interval Schedule
A schedule in which a reinforcer is given after the first correct response that follows a varying time of nonreinforcement, based on an average time.
Variable-Interval Schedule
The greater resistance to extinction that occurs when a portion, rather than all, of the correct responses are reinforced.
Partial-Reinforcement Effect
Duration of STM (Short term memory)
Less than 30 seconds
Whether mental set involves considering special requirements of the problem at hand
No it doesnt
EX: If you didnt study all semester and just crammed, that might give you enough to pass however more efficient is to keep up w/ study all along. Engage in cramming is a mental set: marginally successful but there is a more sufficient strategy
IQ Tests are reliable?
yes they are, standardized. Not an issue if reliable but issue if valid
Baumrint's three parenting styles
1)Authoritarian: produce w/ drawn and not sure of self children. Lack in self confidence
2) Authoritative: well adjusted, confident, best
3) Permissive: impulsive and lack intuitive
Whether younger or elderly women are more likely to watch sexually explicit films w/ their partners
Elderly
What an imbalance between energy intake & output produces
Taking in more calories than putting out, you will gain weight. If take in less calories: loose weight. So, if inbalance, weight will change.
The Sexual Response cycles for males & females
Consist of the same four stages for males and females
Type A vs. Type B behavior patterns
Type A personality: Self centered, always in a hurry, hostile, competitive, impatient
Type B personality: Relaxed, easy going
How much research support there is for the relationship between TV violence and viewer aggression
Overwhelming amount Indisputable cause of effect