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145 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Depth cues that are extracted from one eye alone are binocular cues.
False
One of the disadvantages of a _____________________ observation is that subjects may not respond as they normally would.
laboratory
Gazzaniga, as described in the article One Brain or Two, found that patients with a severed corpus callosum
A)were blind in their right eye.
B)couldn't identify verbally an object placed in their left hand.
C)could only name pictures of objects shown to the right eye.
D)couldn't match an object in their left hand to a group of objects presented to them.
C)could only name pictures of objects shown to the right eye.
Positive reinforcement occurs when the frequency of a behavior increases because it is followed by a positive stimulus.
True
Many students experience more difficulty with essay tests than with multiple-choice tests because essay tests
A)require too much identification.
B)are usually unannounced.
C)take longer to complete.
D)do not provide very good retrieval cues.
D)do not provide very good retrieval cues.
____________ interference is essentially memory interference that works forward in time.
proactive interference
The retention of information over time is known as ____________.
memory
A therapist is trying to get her depressed client to smile as much as possible during their therapy sessions. What is the therapist most likely hoping for?
A)The client's mood will change
B)The client will get upset
C)The client will return for more sessions
D)The client will get angry
A) The client's mood will change
4.Goals that are short-term, specific, and challenging lead to
A)better attribution.
B)increased internal attributions.
C)increased external attributions.
D)greater achievement.
D) greater achievement
Display rules determine
A)the specific type of emotion we feel.
B)where, when, and how we express emotions.
C)how often we experience a particular emotion.
D)the intensity of the emotion we experience.
B)where, when, and how we express emotions.
Most of the brain is made up of
A)neural networks.
B)the peripheral nervous system.
C)motor nerves.
D)sensory nerves.
A) Neural networks
7.Which of the following is not one of the most widely used family therapy techniques?
A)free association
B)validation
C)detriangulation
D)reframing
A)free association
Individuals with high _________ believe that they can produce positive outcomes when confronted with challenging circumstances.
self efficacy
In Leon Kamin's classic experiment, he repeatedly presented a rat with a tone followed by a shock until the tone by itself produced fear. Then, while he continued to present the tone, he also repeatedly presented a light with the shock. What were the effects of the light on the rat's behavior?
A)The rat continued to fear the shock, but did not fear the light.
B)The rat learned to fear the light and shock equally.
C)The rat learned to fear the light and forgot to fear the shock.
D)The rat learned to fear the light more than the shock.
B) The rat learned to fear the light and shock equally
10.The _____________ is involved in the regulation of variables such as body temperature.
A)cerebral cortex
B)cerebrum
C)thalamus
D)hypothalamus
D) hypothalamus
Remembering how to ride a bicycle is an example of
A)semantic memory.
B)priming.
C)implicit memory.
D)explicit memory.
C) implicit memory
Imagine that you take a drug that lowers levels of serotonin. Which is the most likely effect?
A)schizophrenia
B)depression
C)increased pleasure
D)anxiety
B)depression
Which of the following is the best set of synonyms for the terms genetics and contexts ?
A)learning and instinct
B)biology and psychology
C)heredity and environment
D)instincts and innate characteristics
C) heredity and environment
14. “Drinking may be harmful to my health, but I'll die having a good time.” This statement illustrates an attempt to reduce
A)a classical dilemma.
B)the exposure effect.
C)attitude consistency.
D)cognitive dissonance.
D) congitive dissonance
You are studying a new chapter in your psychology text. According to the encoding specificity principle, you should do which of the following in order to maximize your later recall of the information?
A)Copy all of the new information from the text into a notebook.
B)Study primarily the first and the last section of the chapter in the textbook.
C)Form associations between the new material and already familiar concepts while studying.
D)Repeat the new information over and over again.
A) Copy all of the new information from the text into a notebook
Which of the following therapies can be used in a group format?
A)behavior
B)cognitive and humanistic
C)psychodynamic
D)all of the above
D) all of the above
Wesley has 12 hours of class per week. In order to give himself the best chance at making good grades this semester, he should manage his time to study how many hours outside of class each week?
A)12-24
B)3-6
C)24-36
D)6-12
C) 24-36
The skin is useful for the detection of pressure as well as the detection of
A)temperature.
B)olfactory input.
C)audition.
D)chemoreception.
A)temperature.
Mark used to clean his room once a week. Mark's mother begins giving him 30 minutes of computer time every time he cleans his room. Now Mark cleans his room every day. Mark's mother has used which of the following to change his behavior?
A)positive punishment
B)positive reinforcement
C)negative punishment
D)negative reinforcement
B) positive reinforcement
Which of the following is not true regarding use of caffeine?
A)Caffeine affects the brain's pleasure centers.
B)Withdrawal from caffeine can last for weeks.
C)Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive drug in the world.
D)Caffeine is found is coffee, tea, soft drinks, and other sources.
B) Withdrawal from caffeine can last for weeks
A form of learning in which an organism suddenly develops an understanding of the solution to a problem is known as
A)primary learning.
B)insight learning.
C)observational learning.
D)latent learning.
B) insight learning
Ethics are less important in correlational studies. (true/false)
false
Your roommate has a new boyfriend who at first seems very nice. However, every time he comes over to your apartment, he smokes like a chimney and the smell gives you a really bad headache. Eventually, whenever you see him, you start to get a headache, even if he isn't smoking. He stops smoking, and you notice that the sight of him becomes less likely to give you a headache. This decrease in your headaches when you seem him represents
A)discrimination.
B)extinction.
C)spontaneous recovery.
D)generalization.
B) extinction
Bandura studied the development of aggression in children. In the article See Aggression...Do Aggression, we learn that when children were exposed to adult models interacting with a Bobo doll,
A)they tended to imitate the violent model.
B)boys were more likely to perform violence than girls when a female model was violent with the doll.
C)they tended to behave non-aggressively when they saw a non-aggressive model.
D)boys were more likely to imitate verbal violence when there was a female aggressive model.
A)they tended to imitate the violent model.
In Bandura's Bobo doll study, as described in the article See aggression...Do aggression, which of the following fundamental contributions were made?
A)it demonstrated dramatically that children can acquire new behaviors simply by observing adults.
B)it laid the groundwork for future studies on the effects on children of viewing violence in person or in the media.
C)it showed that parental advisories on violent shows will reduce children's aggression.
D)both A and B.
B)it laid the groundwork for future studies on the effects on children of viewing violence in person or in the media.
According to the article, What You Expect is What You Get, researchers discovered that if a teacher is told that a particular set of students is smarter than average, even if those students were actually no brighter than the rest of the class,
A)those students perform only to their natural ability.
B)those children will perform better than the rest of the students.
C)those children show higher gains in IQ than the other students.
D)First and second graders show higher gains in IQ than the control students, but the effects diminish after that.
B)those children will perform better than the rest of the students
According to statistics, which of the following is at highest risk for anorexia nervosa?
A)16-year-old Hispanic female who works at a fast food place after school
B)15-year-old white female whose parents are both lawyers
C)18-year-old African American female whose parents are both teachers
D)21-year-old white college student who works 30 hours a week to pay for school
B)15-year-old white female whose parents are both lawyers
When individuals make decisions on their own, their decisions tend to be more conservative than the decision they will agree to in a group. The tendency for a group's decision to be more daring is called
A)the risky shift.
B)deindividuation.
C)emergent boldness.
D)disinhibition.
B)deindividuation.
The principle that states that when people see a disconnected figure, they fill in the spaces and see it as a complete figure is known as
A)figure-ground relationship.
B)similarity.
C)proximity.
D)closure.
D)Closure
Controlled processes are a part of
A)lower-level consciousness.
B)subconscious awareness.
C)higher-level consciousness.
D)daydreaming.
c) higher-level consciousness
The incidence of depressive disorders is lower in less industrialized, less modernized countries than in more industrialized, modernized countries. This appears to be related to the ______________ lifestyles and ____________ families and communities in more industrialized countries.
A)faster, stronger
B)slower, weaker
C)slower, stronger
D)faster, weaker
D)faster, weaker
The Oedipus complex develops and is resolved during which stage of Freud's theory of psychosexual development?
A)anal
B)oral
C)phallic
D)genital
c)phallic
It is estimated that without some form of contraception, ____________ of women would become pregnant in their first year of being (heterosexually) sexually active.
A)25%
B)50%
C)90%
D)10%
C) 90%
The eye is to sensation as the brain is to
A)hearing.
B)impression.
C)feeling.
D)perception.
d) perception
According to Skinner, an individual's personality is the result of
A)age.
B)thinking.
C)heredity.
D)learning.
d)learning
Which of the following would not be considered a hypothesis?
A)Cancer survivors with greater levels of distress before they are diagnosed with cancer will report a better quality of life after treatment.
B)Drug A will help people.
C)Males will perform better on a reading test compared to females.
D)Drug A will enhance memory abilities.
B) Drug A will help people
Your car is stuck in the middle of nowhere. You need a screwdriver to tighten a clamp on a radiator hose, but you have no tools with you. All you have is 50 cents in your pocket. What behavior would indicate a lack of functional fixedness?
A)finding a telephone to make a call
B)using the edge of a coin as a screwdriver
C)walking to the nearest gas station
D)waiting for roadside help
D)waiting for roadside help
The simultaneous distribution of information across different neural pathways is called
A)parallel processing.
B)perceptual set.
C)sensory adaptation.
D)binding.
A)parallel processing.
A toddler's jealousy at the birth of a new sibling is an example of which type of developmental process?
A)signal process
B)socioemotional process
C)physical process
D)cognitive process
B)socioemotional process
A sleep disorder in which individuals stop breathing because the windpipe fails to open or the brain processes involved in respiration fail to work properly is called
A)enuresis.
B)somnambulism.
C)narcolepsy.
D)sleep apnea.
D) sleep apnea
The most promising treatment strategy for schizophrenia to date is
A)a combination of psychotherapy and low-dosage, long-term drug therapy.
B)psychotherapy in the form of strict and consistent behavior modification.
C)a one-time administration of a large dosage of antipsychotic drugs.
D)several administrations of large dosages of antipsychotic drugs.
A)a combination of psychotherapy and low-dosage, long-term drug therapy.
Men generally prefer
A)rapport talk.
B)small talk.
C)socialized talk.
D)report talk.
D) report talk
Some researchers believe that intelligence can be increased through the appropriate environmental modifications. Which research evidence least supports this belief?
A)Increased communication with young children is associated with higher IQ scores.
B)High-quality intervention programs enhance children's intellectual development.
C)Some children from wealthy families perform very poorly in school and on standardized tests.
D)Environmental enrichment can increase a child's IQ score.
C)Some children from wealthy families perform very poorly in school and on standardized tests.
Sensory receptors
A)produce apparent motion.
B)are specialized to detect and transmit stimulus information to afferent nerves and the brain.
C)are neurons in the brain that respond to particular lines or other features of a stimulus.
D)produce a predisposition to perceive something in a particular way.
B)are specialized to detect and transmit stimulus information to afferent nerves and the brain.
According to Freud, the major responsibility of the ego is to
A)prevent the death instinct from destroying the ego ideal.
B)make sure that the process of identification is not hampered.
C)find socially acceptable ways for the id to be gratified.
D)fulfill all the desires of the id.
C)find socially acceptable ways for the id to be gratified.
Psychodynamic and humanistic therapies are both examples of
A)biological therapies.
B)sociocultural therapies.
C)behavioral therapies.
D)insight therapies.
D)insight therapies
Thermoreceptors
A)respond to changes in the length of hair cells.
B)respond to changes in wavelength.
C)respond to vibrations on the skin.
D)respond to increases and decreases in temperature.
D)respond to increases and decreases in temperature.
Juan and Diane are in a friendly discussion over which of their favorite teams will do better in the Soccer World Cup. Each is certain that their national style of play is superior to the others. Both are third-generation Americans, but each has maintained a close connection to their ethnic heritage. Juan is rooting for Brazil, and Diane is supporting the Italian effort. Which of the following terms would explain this?
A)cultural blending
B)ethnocentrism
C)assimilation
D)multicultural awareness
B)ethnocentrism
Chemical messengers manufactured by the endocrine glands are called
A)hydroelectric fluids.
B)neurotransmitters.
C)endocrine fluids.
D)hormones.
D) hormones
Some neurotransmitters are excitatory whereas others are
A)agitory.
B)inhibitory.
C)resting.
D)charged.
b) inhibitory
The neurotransmitters that appear to play a role in mood disorders are
A)serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
B)GABA, endorphin, and norepinephrine.
C)dopamine, tyrosine, and endorphin.
D)acetylcholine, endorphin, and epinephrine.
A)serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
____________ nerves carry information from the brain to muscles and glands.
motor
In the Thoughts Out of Tune article, which participants rated the experimental task as more enjoyable?
A)The control group
B)The group that was paid $1 to lie about the task
C)The group that was paid $20 to lie about the task.
D)All participants rated the task as equally enjoyable.
B)The group that was paid $1 to lie about the task
Social perception refers to all of these except
A)having an unselfish interest in helping others.
B)attempting to influence the way others perceive us.
C)developing impressions of other people.
D)comparing ourselves with others.
A)having an unselfish interest in helping others.
In the article about Little Emotional Albert, what was being tested?
A)Whether fears could be operantly conditioned.
B)Whether emotions were a biological or a cognitive process.
C)Whether emotions can be thought of as the result of classical conditioning
D)Whether babies were afraid of white rats.
A)Whether fears could be operantly conditioned.
According to the Little Emotional Albert article, recent applications of Watson's theories include all but which of the following?
A)The psychological effects of advertising in different types of media.
B)Studies of the origins and treatments of phobias.
C)The genetic basis of fear.
D)All of the above are applications of Watson's theories.
c)The genetic basis of fear
In the article, Are You the Master of Your Fate, Rotter found that internals differed from externals on all of the following, except
A)betting decisions based on the gambler's fallacy - for example, that a number that hasn't come up in a while is due to come up.
B)participation in political marches and joining civil rights groups.
C)opinions about fraternity and sorority groups on campus.
D)plans to attend college.
C)opinions about fraternity and sorority groups on campus.
In the Are You the Master of Your Fate article, Rotter suggested all of the following as reasons that people adopt internal/external locus of control, except
A)cultural differences
B)gender differences
C)socioeconomic differences
D)differences in parenting styles
B) gender differences
In the article One Brain or Two?, Gazzaniga and Sperry
A)wanted to explore the extent to which the two halves of the brain function independently
B)wanted to understand what happens when the corpus callosum is severed
C)wanted to understand cat's behaviors in a maze
D)wanted to test for brain damage in epileptic patients
A)wanted to explore the extent to which the two halves of the brain function independently
Compared to Piaget, Vygotsky placed more emphasis on
A)the failure of adults to reason logically.
B)the earlier ages at which skills emerged.
C)the role of culture in development.
D)the importance of small steps in development.
C)the role of culture in development.
Internal locus of control refers to the belief that events are influenced by our own actions and behaviors.
True
Which of the following personality traits has been associated with prejudice?
A)unconventional behavior
B)exaggerated submission to authority
C)flexible thinking
D)acceptance of those who violate conventional norms
B)exaggerated submission to authority
AIDS can be transmitted in which of the following ways?
A)direct contact of cuts or mucous membranes with blood and sexual fluids
B)sexual contact
C)sharing hypodermic needles
D)all of the above
D)all of the above
According to the behaviorist perspective, a stimulus that produces a response without prior learning is known as a(n) ____________.
unconditional response
Vigorously challenging and questioning clients about critical issues and forcing them to face their problems are techniques used in
A)Gestalt therapy.
B)person-centered therapy.
C)humanistic therapy.
D)psychodynamic therapy.
A) Gestalt therapy
Retrieval involves taking information out of storage.
True
_________ groups provide social support, role modeling, and the sharing of concrete problem-solving strategies.
support
People who have urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors have a(n)
A)generalized anxiety disorder.
B)phobic disorder.
C)obsessive-compulsive disorder.
D)panic disorder.
C)obsessive-compulsive disorder.
The ego's protective methods for reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality are known as
A)Freudian slips.
B)archetypes.
C)defense mechanisms.
D)the collective unconscious.
C)defense mechanisms.
The multicultural approach in which people move into the larger culture but maintain many aspects of their distinct cultural identities is called
A)separation.
B)assimilation.
C)marginalization.
D)integration.
D)integration.
You have to study four chapters of information for your next test. If you decide to use the problem solving strategy of sub-goaling, you would do which of the following?
A)cram the night before the test
B)do not read the chapters until right before the test
C)break the topics to be studied into smaller areas and focus on each in an organized sequence
D)both a and b
C)break the topics to be studied into smaller areas and focus on each in an organized sequence
Sleep stages are monitored with an EEG.
True
In reaction to Freud, Horney said women really did not want to have a man's physiological features; what they really wanted was
A)ego defense mechanisms, particularly intellectualization.
B)adequate superegos and stronger moral convictions.
C)stronger personalities.
D)power and opportunities.
D)power and opportunities.
Drugs that decrease agitated behavior, hallucinations, and tension are known as
A)monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
B)antianxiety drugs.
C)antipsychotic drugs.
D)antidepressant drugs.
C)antipsychotic drugs.
Which of the following is not a primary process involved in development?
A)socioemotional processes
B)signal processes
C)cognitive processes
D)physical processes
B)signal processes
In naturalistic observation, the observer must be as unobtrusive as possible.
True
In naturalistic observation, the observer must be as unobtrusive as possible.
True
The role of the pupil in vision is to
A)transduce sensory information into electrochemical signals.
B)determine the color of the eye.
C)focus the light on the receptor cells.
D)control the amount of light that gets into the eye.
D)control the amount of light that gets into the eye.
The idea that imbalances in neurotransmitters or hormones cause mental illness comes from which of the following perspectives?
A)structural view
B)biochemical view
C)genetic view
D)learning view
B)biochemical view
Which of the following is not true regarding stage 3 and stage 4 sleep?
A)These two stages are often referred to as delta sleep.
B)Distinguishing between stage 3 and stage 4 is difficult.
C)In stage 3 and stage 4, our brain waves most resemble waking brain waves.
D)Both are characterized by slow- and high-amplitude brain waves.
C)In stage 3 and stage 4, our brain waves most resemble waking brain waves.
Biological therapies are usually most effective on their own, without psychotherapy.
False
Personality disorders are grouped into three diagnostic clusters.
False
From an ethological perspective, aggression would be
A)conditioned.
B)driven by the ego.
C)linked to survival of a species.
D)learned by observation.
C) linked to survival of a species
Joshua has received low grades in math throughout his school years. In the lower grades, he would try to study hard, but the results were always the same. Eventually, he stopped trying to do better in math because nothing he tried seemed to work. Joshua has developed
A)post-traumatic stress disorder.
B)learned helplessness.
C)major depressive disorder.
D)bipolar disorder.
B)learned helplessness.
Which of the following is true of psychology
A)It describes behavior from the same perspective as did the philosophers.
B)It is based upon common sense.
C)It uses the scientific method.
D)All psychology is developed from myth.
C) it uses the scientific method
While Chris was trying to study at the library, two people near his study area kept talking to each other. Chris was annoyed by the noise and moved to a quieter area. This is an example of
A)avoidance coping.
B)problem-focused coping.
C)passive coping.
D)emotion-focused coping.
B)problem-focused coping.
Identity status refers to
A)a person's position in the development of an identity.
B)the challenge adolescents face in finding out who they are.
C)the bond between an adolescent and a caregiver.
D)expectations about how adolescents should think, feel, and act.
A)a person's position in the development of an identity.
During the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome,
A)vulnerability to disease increases.
B)the immune system function is temporarily impaired.
C)hormones that reduce inflammation are released.
D)the immune system functions to fight off infection with high efficiency.
A)vulnerability to disease increases.
Observations of children and their parents has provided evidence that
A)parents don't have any influence on the language the child develops.
B)parents only reinforce good sentences.
C)children need to be exposed to parents with language skills for language to develop normally.
D)parents' reinforcement is responsible for the development of language rule systems.
C)children need to be exposed to parents with language skills for language to develop normally.
The theory of motivation that proposes that the purpose of behavior is to reduce arousal is called the
A)expectancy theory.
B)drive reduction theory.
C)opponent process theory.
D)optimum level of arousal theory.
B)drive reduction theory.
The ______________ provide support and nutritional benefits in the nervous system.
A)interneurons
B)dendrites
C)glial cells
D)worker neurons
C)glial cells
The brain and spinal cord make up the
A)automatic nervous system.
B)peripheral nervous system.
C)central nervous system.
D)somatic nervous system.
C)central nervous system
Random assignment reduces some of the effects of potential sources of error.
True
Which of the following is the most accurate pathway for detecting smell?
A)receptor—sensory cortex—limbic system
B)thalamus—cortex—limbic system—receptor
C)receptor—thalamus—sensory cortex
D)receptor—limbic system—thalamus—sensory cortex
C)receptor—thalamus—sensory cortex
Damaged or insufficient myelin sheath would cause which of the following?
A)exaggerated nerve impulses
B)slowed nerve impulses
C)rapid nerve impulses
D)accelerated nerve impulses
B)slowed nerve impulses
Which of the following is an advantage of a laboratory observation?
A)The researcher has more control over outside distractions.
B)The “mind” is very well matched to laboratory observation.
C)The subjects will act as they do in real life.
D)Subjects are generally from a diverse background.
A) The researcher has more control over outside distractions.
Mr. Garcia teaches a 2-hour history class. Since there is a lot of information to cover, Mr. Garcia always lectures at a steady pace for the entire 2 hours. His students complain that they can't keep up with all the information he is presenting. Mr. Garcia wonders, “How can I help my students better cope with the information I present in class?” Given your knowledge about the serial position effect, what advice would you give Mr. Garcia?
A)He should emphasize key concepts and names during his lecture.
B)He should give the students a quiz at the end of each class.
C)He should give his students a 10-minute break after the first 55 minutes of lecture.
D)He should allow students to drink coffee during the class.
B)He should give the students a quiz at the end of each class.
Which of the following is an effect of exercise?
A)increased anxiety
B)higher risk of heart disease
C)reduced depression
D)higher incidence of depression
C)reduced depression
The finding that people remember information better when their mood is similar at encoding and retrieval is known as ____________ memory.
State dependent
Which of the following is not true about the role of heredity in mood disorders?
A)Some studies have suggested the involvement of chromosome 22 in bipolar disorders.
B)Mood disorders tend to run in families.
C)The hereditary link is stronger for bipolar disorders than depressive disorders.
D)If one identical twin has a bipolar disorder, the second twin has a 10% probability of having it.
A) Some studies have suggested the involvement of chromosome 22 in bipolar disorders
Which of the following best describes anorexia nervosa?
A)depression
B)bulimia
C)self-starvation
D)bingeing-and-purging
C)self-starvation
Which of the following is not true of repressed memories?
A)They tend to involve traumatic events.
B)They remain in the unconscious forever.
C)They may emerge in consciousness at a later point.
D)They normally are difficult to remember consciously.
B)They remain in the unconscious forever.
Intense feelings of fear without focus, pounding heart, and breathlessness are all characteristics of
A)schizophrenic reactions.
B)obsessive-compulsions.
C)an anxiety disorder.
D)a somatoform disorder.
C)an anxiety disorder.
Mental representations of categories of objects or events are called
A)sensations.
B)concepts.
C)feelings.
D)responses.
B)concepts
Which of the following factors contributes to resilient children?
A)bonds to supportive, competent adults
B)absence of parents
C)low intellectual functioning
D)low self-esteem
A)bonds to supportive, competent adults
Which is the best description of emotion-focused coping?
A)thinking positively and avoiding negative thoughts
B)changing the mental speech we use when we think about something
C)facing troubles head on and trying to solve them
D)
D)responding to stress in an emotional manner
The Stanford-Binet intelligence test analyzes individual responses in all but which of the following areas?
A)short-term memory
B)sensory memory
C)abstract/visual reasoning
D)verbal and quantitative reasoning
B) sensory memory
When you walk into a dark theater, you can't see anything. Eventually, though you begin to notice that you can see the other people sitting near you. This best illustrates which property?
A)absolute threshold
B)sensory adaptation
C)subliminal perception
D)signal detection
B)sensory adaptation
One of the most important factors in the growth of cognitive psychology was
A)the development of computers.
B)the death of Sigmund Freud.
C)advances in understanding the biology of the brain.
D)the Apollo space missions.
C)advances in understanding the biology of the brain
A woman wandered away from her hometown and was discovered, under a different name and identity, five years later in a distant city. She is most likely suffering from
A)depersonalization.
B)a fugue state.
C)multiple personality disorder.
D)dissociation amnesia.
B)multiple personality disorder
The visible part of the ear is the eardrum.
false
Compared to men, women are
A)less likely to develop depression.
B)less likely to develop bipolar disorder.
C)more likely to develop bipolar disorder.
D)more likely to develop depression.
D)more likely to develop depression.
According to Atkinson and Shiffrin, human memory can be divided into ____________ memory, working memory, and long-term memory.
Sensory
Which of the following is not true regarding correlational studies?
A)If the correlation is close to 1.00, causation can be inferred.
B)A positive correlation means that both factors vary in the same direction.
C)A negative correlation means that both factors vary in different directions.
D)The closer to 0.00 the correlation is, the weaker the strength of relationship.
A)If the correlation is close to 1.00, causation can be inferred.
The main controversy surrounding the DSM-IV involves its
A)humanistic orientation.
B)strong reliance on the medical model.
C)strong reliance on psychoanalytic concepts.
D)behavioral orientation.
B)strong reliance on the medical model.
The main controversy surrounding the DSM-IV involves its
A)humanistic orientation.
B)strong reliance on the medical model.
C)strong reliance on psychoanalytic concepts.
D)behavioral orientation.
B)strong reliance on the medical model.
A memory disorder in which the individual cannot recall information acquired before sustaining an injury to the brain is known as
A)traumatic memory degeneration.
B)amnesia.
C)motivated forgetting.
D)decay.
b) amnesia
“No awareness” is comparable to Freud's concept of unconscious thought.
True
Sagrita feels that she does not fit within any cultural group and that she has lost her identity. Sagrita is experiencing
A)marginalization.
B)assimilation.
C)integration.
D)separation.
D) seperation
The emphasis of Freud's dream analysis was on _____________ and _____________.
A)sex; females
B)males; aggression
C)sex; aggression
D)males; females
C)sex; aggression
Circadian rhythms that are desynchronized cannot be restored.
False
When investigators examined claims that rock songs contain backwards recordings of messages from Satan, they found that
A)people heard the message if they had been told the song contained a message.
B)no one heard any messages in the song.
C)everyone heard the same message in the song.
D)people heard the message if they had been told the song did not contain a message.
A)people heard the message if they had been told the song contained a message.
Which of the following would give a student the most balanced perspective on the topic of foreign policy?
A)listening to a professor about foreign policy
B)using common sense about foreign policy
C)listening to a political leader regarding foreign policy
D)applying critical thinking to foreign policy
A) listening to a professor about foreign policy
Physical dependence refers to
A)the need for a drug that causes symptoms such as physical pain when it is stopped.
B)the strong desire to repeat the use of a drug for emotional reasons.
C)the unpleasant symptoms that occur when a drug is discontinued.
D)the need to take increasing amounts of a drug to get the same effect.
A) the need for a druf that causes syptoms such as physical pain when it is stopped
A patient with severe _________ might improve with a split-brain operation.
Epilepsy
An essay test requires recognition memory.
False
When there is no evidence of a physical cause, retardation is classified as ____________.
no idea
A clinician told Mark that a sample of his handwriting was required in order to assess his personality. This type of measure is considered a
A)projective technique.
B)regression test.
C)self-report.
D)Thematic Apperception Test.
D)Thematic Apperception Test.
Implicit personality theory describes the
A)tendency to take credit for our successes and blame others for our failures.
B)public's opinion about which personality traits go together.
C)influence other people have on our personality.
D)effects of personality on attribution style.
B)public's opinion about which personality traits go together.
At the optic chiasm,
A)cones are highly concentrated for the best vision.
B)rods are highly concentrated for increased light sensitivity.
C)the optic nerve fibers divide and cross over the midline of the brain.
D)light is transduced into action potentials.
C)the optic nerve fibers divide and cross over the midline of the brain.
Convergent thinking, commonly required on IQ tests, produces
A)two answers.
B)unlimited answers.
C)one answer.
D)three answers.
c) one answer
Theories of the cause of phobias include all of these except that phobias
A)result from overly critical parents.
B)are defense mechanisms to ward off threatening impulses.
C)involve a neural circuit which includes the thalamus, amygdala, and cerebral cortex.
D)are learned fears.
A) result from overly critical parents
Which of the following is an advantage of a laboratory observation?
A)The researcher has more control over outside distractions.
B)The “mind” is very well matched to laboratory observation.
C)The subjects will act as they do in real life.
D)Subjects are generally from a diverse background.
A) The researcher has more control over outside distractions.
Which of the following is an advantage of a laboratory observation?
A)The researcher has more control over outside distractions.
B)The “mind” is very well matched to laboratory observation.
C)The subjects will act as they do in real life.
D)Subjects are generally from a diverse background.
A) The researcher has more control over outside distractions.
According to Erickson's theory of development, children must master knowledge and intellectual skills to successfully resolve the initiative versus guilt stage.
False
Hypnotic testimony is banned in some states because it
A)has questionable reliability.
B)never works.
C)is relatively new.
D)requires corroborating evidence which is impossible to find.
A)has questionable reliability.
A person who usually sleeps eight hours completes an average of how many sleep cycles per night?
A)4
B)5
C)3
D)2
B) 5
According to the facial feedback hypothesis, what will happen if you smile?
A)You will feel angry.
B)You will feel no different than before.
C)You will feel sad.
D)You will feel happy.
D)you will feel happy
Research has indicated that electroconvulsive therapy, or ECT, is somewhat effective in treating severe
A)depression.
B)conversion disorders.
C)mania.
D)sociopathy.
A)depression
In operant conditioning, extinction occurs when a previously reinforced response
A)spontaneously generalizes.
B)adapts to a new conditioned stimulus.
C)becomes stronger over time.
D)is no longer reinforced.
D) is no longer reinforced