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58 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what is stress?
proscess by which we perceive and respond to certainn events (called stressors), that we apprasise as threatening or challenging
who developed the "fight-or-flight" theory?
walter cannon
what did hans selye contribute?
general adaptation syndrome (gas)
what is the general adaptation syndrome?
concept of the body's adaptive responses to stress in 3 stages.
1. alarm reaction
2. resistance
3. exhaustiion
what is health psychology?
subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
what is the life events checklist?
provides a list of events that may have occurred in the past 6-12 months--measure of objective stress
what is coronary heart diseaase?
clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle
what is type a personality?
competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally agressive, and anger-prone people
what is type b personality?
term for easygoing, relaxed people
who came up with the theory of type a and be personality?
friedman and rosenman
what is a psychophysiological illness?
a "mind-body" illness
any stress-related physical illness
what is a lymphocyte?
a type of WBC that are part of the body's immune system
what are the two types of lymphocytes?
-b lymphocytes: form in bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bactericl infections
-t lymphocytes: form in the thymus and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances
whawt are macrophages?
identifies, pursues, and ingests harmful invaders to the body
what is teh biofeedback system?
system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state.
what is social psychology?
scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
what is the attribution theory?
tendency to give a casual explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the persosns disposition
whta is the fundamental attribution error?
tendency for observers, when analyzing anothers behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
what is attitude?
belief and feeling that redisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people and events
what is the foot-in-the-door phenomenon?
tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
what is the door-in-the-face phenomenon?
a technique to get people t o comply with a request, whereby people are presented first with a LARGE request, whichy they are expected to refuse, and then with a smaller, more reasonable, request to which it is hoped they will acquiesce.
what is role?
set of expectations about a social position. defines how those in the position ought to behave.
what is the cognitive dissonance theory?
we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognition) are inconsistent
what is conformity?
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
who were the two experimenters that dealt with conformity?
sheriff and asch
what was sheriff's experiment?
norm formation. subject in dark room. light on wall. light "moves". asked to guess how far. when placed in room with other, distances guessed got closer and closer (people conformed.
what was asch's experiment?
7 students. show line and then 3 other lines. pick which one is similar (obvious answer). of 7, 6 knew about study. one round, the 6 said wrong answer on purpose, and 3/4 of the time, the 7th conformed.
what is normative social influencce?
influence resulting from a person's want to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
what is informational social influence?
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others opinions about reality.
what was milgrams obedience study?
participant was assigned "teacher" or "learner" (always "teacher"). teacher assigned to "shock" learner when given the wrong answerr, even though they knew the learner was in pain. experimenter told them to go on, and most conformed and did
what is social facilitation?
imporved performance of tasks in the presence of others. occurs with simple or well learned tasks, but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered.
what is social loafting?
thendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their effort toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
what is deindividuation?
loss of self awareness and self restraint in group situation that foster arousal and anonymity
what is a stereotype?
a generalized (sometimes accurate, but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
what is prejudice?
a harmful attitude based on inaccurate generalization about a group of people
what is the difference between the ingroup and the outgroup?
ingroup: "us". people with whom one shares a common identity.
outgroup: "them". those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup
what is ingroup bias?
tendency to favor one's own group
what is the scapegoat theory?
theory that prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
what is aggression?
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy. can be good or bad
what is the ffrustration-agression principle?
principle that frustration-the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate agression.
what is conflict?
perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas. the state in which two or more motives cannot be satisfied because they interfere iwth one another.
what is approach-approach conflict?
conflict in which the individual must choose between two positive goals of approximately equal value (ex. finish school and offered two attractive jobs...both would be good)
what is avoidance-approach conflict?
conflict in which the individual must choose between two negative outcomes of approximately equal value (ex. person with a toothache must choose between pain of toothace or discomfort of going to the dentist)
what is approach-avoidance conflict?
conflict in which achieving a postivie goal will produce a negative outcome as well (ex. accepted to colleg out of state. good school, but serious boyfriend staying home)
whta is multiple approach-avoidance conflict?
conflict that requires the individual to choose between two alternatives, each or which contains both positive and negative consequences. (ex. offered athletic scholarship to two schools. one has a strong sports program, but sucky coach and players. other has sucky sports program, but excellent coach and players)
what is a social trap?
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutally destrutive behavior.
what is the prisoner dilemma?
2 prisoners, each must decide whether to confess or not. both realize they could mutally profit, but, mistrusting one another, become "locked in" to not cooperating
what is the tragedy of the commons?
competing for a common goal or resource
what is a life event?
psychologically significant events that occur in a person's life, such as divorce, childbirth, or change in employment.
what is social support?
the role played by friends and relatives in providing advice, assistance, and someone in whom to confide private feelings.
what did zimbardo contribute?
prison experiment. volunteers assigned to the social roles of guard and prisoner dramatically conformed to those roles.
what is group thinking?
the faulty decision making processes that may occur in groups
what is group polarization?
the tendency for group discussion to make beliefs and attitudes more extreme
what is the bystander effect?
tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
what is non-zero suum games?
games in which outcomes need not sum to zero. with cooperation, both can win;; with competition, both can lose...or 1 win, 1 lose.
what is darley and latane's decision tree?
bystander effect
what is passionate love?
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another. usually present at the geginning of a love relationship.
what is companionate love?
deep affectionate attachement we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.