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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a psychological disorder?
a "harmful dysfunction" in which a behavior is judged to be:
aypical
disturbing
maladaptive
unjustifiable
What is teh medical model?
concept that diseases have physical causes
can be disagnosed, treated, and in most cases cured
assumes that these "mental" illnesses can be diagnosed on teh basis of their smpotms and cured through therapy, which may include tretment in a psychicatric hospital
What is the bio-psycho-social perspective?
assumes that biological, sociocultural and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders
What is DSM?
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (IV)
a widely used system for classifying psycholotical disordres
What is an anxiety disorder?
distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
What is generalized anxiety disorder?
person is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
person does not know whats causing the anxiety
anxiety is "free floating"
What is panic disorder?
marked by a minut-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompoanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensationg
What is a phobia?
persistent, irrational frear of a specific object or situation
What is obsessive compulsive disorder?
unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsession) and/or actiosn (compulsions)
What is dissociateve disorders?
conscious awareness becomes seperated (dissociated) from previous memoreis, thoughts, and feelings
What is dissociative identity disordr?
rare dissocitatve disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personatlities
formally called multiple personality disordre
what is personality disorder?
disorders charactrized by inflexible and enduing behavior patterns that impair social funcitons
usually without anxiety, depression or delusion
what is antisocial personality disorder?
disorder in which the person (usually man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members.
may be agressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
makes great criminals.
What is mood disorder?
characterized by emotional extremes
what is major depressive disordre?
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences tow or more weeks of derpressed moods, feelings of worthelssness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activites
what is a manic episode?
a moode disorder marked by a hyperactive, widly optimistci state
what is bipolar disorder?
a mood disorder in which teh person alternats between teh hopelessness and lethargy of depression and teh overexcited state of mania.
fomally called manic-depressive disorder.
what is schizophrenia?
literal translation = "split mind"
a group of svere disorders characereized by:
disorganized and delusional
thinking
disturbed perceptions
inappropriate emotions and
actions
what are they types of schizophrenia?
paranoid: the individual holds delusions of persecution and grandeur that seriosuly distort reality
disorganized: characterized by shallow willines, extreme social withdrawal, and fragmented delusions and hallucinations
catatonic: the individual spends long periods in an inactive statuelike state
what is the difference between a delusion and hallucination?
delusion: false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
hallucinations: sensory experiences without senosry stimulation
what is psychotherapy?
an emotially charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers frompsychological difficulties
what is the ecletic approach?
an appraoch to psychotherapy that, depending on te clients problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
what is psychoanalysis?
freud believed the patients free associations, resistances, dream, and transferences--and teh therapist's interpreatation of them--released previoulsly repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self insight
what is resistance?
blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
what is interpretaton?
the analyst's noting supposed dream meaning, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight
what is transference?
the patients transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships
what is client-centerd thereapy?
humanistic therapy developed by carl rogers
therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients growth.
what is active listening?
empathic listenign in which the listener echoes, restates and clarifies
what is behavior therapy?
therapy that applies learning princiiples to the eliminations of unwanted behaviors
what is coutnerconditioning?
a procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwatned behaviors.
based on classical conditioning.
includes systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning.
what is exposure therapy?
treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or reaality) to the things they fear and avoid
what is systematic desensitization?
type of counterconditioning.
associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli.
commonly used to treat phobias
what is aversive conditioning?
type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior.
what is token economy?
an operant conditioning procedure that rewards desired behavior.
patient exchanges a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various privileges or treats
what is cognitive therapy?
teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting.
based on teh assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.
what is cbt?
cognitive behavioral therapy.
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) iwth behaviro therapy (changing behavior)
what is family therapy?
treats the family as a system.
views an individuals unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members.
attempts to guide family memebers toward positive relationships and improved communication.
list some benefits of therapy:
expectation that things can and will get better.
plausible explanation for symptoms.
effective tehrapist is emphathic and seek to understnad other persons problems.
what type of therapist can perscribe medicine?
psychiatrists
what is psychopharmacology?
study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
what chemical provides an effective drug therapy for the mood swings of bipolar (manic depressive) disorder?
lithium
what is electroconvulsive therapy?
therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electrical current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized person
what is psychosurgery?
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
what is a lobotomy?
now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients.