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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Gender
Psychological & sociocultural meanings added to biological sex
Gender Role
Societal expectations for "appropriate" male & female behavior
Gender Schema
(mental blueprints) of "correct" behaviors for boys vs. girls
Transsexuals
Mismatch between gender identity & gonads, genitals, or internal accessory organs
Bisexual
Primary erotic attraction toward members of both sexes
Research on aggression
Men exhibit greater physical aggressiveness. Women supposedly higher on relational aggression, but no clear differences.

Relational aggression - verbal, gossip
Androgyny
Combining characteristics typically male (assertive, athletic) with those considered typically female (yielding, nurturing)
Major contributors to sexuality knowledge
Masters, Johnson, Ellis, Kinsey
Sexual response cycle
Excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
Excitement Phase
Increasing levels of arousal & engorgement
Plateau Phase
Leveling off in a high state of arousal
Orgasm Phase
Pleasurable release of tension
Resolution Phase
Return to non-aroused state
Evolutionary perspective
Provides adaptive value. Multiple partners maximize a man's genes chances for survival; a woman's genes chances increase with a good protector & provider.
Social role approach
Sex differences reflect cultural roles & division of labor. Men seen as protectors and providers. Women are seen as child bearers and homemakers.
Performance anxiety
Fear of being judged in connection with sexual activity.
HIV vs. AIDS
HIV- is a virus- being infected

AIDS- is the next step- HIV destroys immune system's ability to fight disease
Motivation
Set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior, usually toward some goal
Drive reduction theory
Internal tensions "push" toward satisfying basic needs
Arousal theory
Motivated toward optimal level of arousal
Incentive theory
Motivation results from the "pull" of external environmental stimuli
Maslow's theory
Interaction of biological, psychological, & social needs; lower motives (physiological & safety) must be met before higher needs (belonging, self-esteem)
Characteristics of bulimia
Normal or above-normal weight
Binge eating
Purging behavior
Excessive exercise to prevent weight gain
Fasting to prevent weight gain
Characteristics of high achievers
Prefers moderately difficult tasks
Prefers clear goals with competent feedback
Competitive
Prefers responsibility
Persistent
More accomplished
Three components of emotions
Physiological
Cognitive
Behavioral
Physiological (component of emotion)
Arousal comes from brain (particularly the limbic system) & autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Cognitive (component of emotion)
Thoughts, values, and expectations
Behavioral (component of emotion)
Expressions, gestures, and body positions
Theories of Emotion
James-Lange
Cannon-Bard
Facial-Feedback
Schachter's Two-Factor
James-Lange
Subjective experience of emotion follows bodily arousal
Cannon-Bard
Arousal and emotion occur simultaneously
Facial-Feedback
Facial movements elicit arousal and specific emotions
Schachter's Two-Factor
Arousal and label (or interpretation) produce emotion
Five-Factor Model Traits
Openness
Conscientiousness
Extroversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism
Openness
Open to new ideas vs. conventional and narrow in interests
Conscientiousness
Responsible and organized vs. irresponsible and careless
Extroversion
Sociable and talkative vs. withdrawn and quiet
Agreeableness
Trusting and good-natured vs. suspicious and ruthless
Neuroticism
Emotionally unstable and moody vs. emotionally stable and easygoing
Unconscious
Thoughts, motives, or memories blocked from normal awareness
Pleasure principle
In Freud's theory, the principle on which the ID operates; Seeking immediate pleasure
Rationalization
Substituting socially acceptable reason for unacceptable ones.

Example: Justifying cheating on an exam by saying "everyone else does it."
Oedipus complex
Period of conflict during the phallic stage when children are supposedly attracted to the opposite-sex parent and hostile toward the same-sex parent
Neo-Freudians
Adler, Jung, and Horney did not agree with Freud
Unconditional positive regard
Love and acceptance with no contingencies attached
Reciprocal determinism
Cognitions, behaviors, and the environment interact to produce personality
Locus of control
What people consider the source of life's rewards and punishments (Internal (because of you) or external (environment) locus of control)
Influences of personality
Genetics
Brainstructures
Neurochemistry
Assessing Personality
Measuring personality through interviews, observations, objective tests (MMPI) and projective tests (TAT)
Objective Tests
These test are considered "objective" because they have a limited number of possible responses to items. They aslo follow empirical standards for test construction and scoring
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Consists of a series of ambiguous black-and-white pictures that are shown to the test-taker, who is asked to create a story related to each.
Humanistic theory of personality
People are innately good (or, at worst, neutral) with a positive drive toward self-fulfillment.

Maslow's proposal that basic physical necessities must be satisfied before higher-growth needs.
Master's and Johnson
Early scientists who used experimentation and direct observation to study the sexual response cycle
Havelock Ellis
Was one of the earliest to scientifically study human sexuality. He emphasized nocturnal emissions were not dangerous and need for reliable and accurate sex information
Alfred Kinsey
Among the first to use surveys and interviews to study sexual practices and beliefs
Sexual Treatment
Usually begin with interviews and examinations to determine whether the problem is organic, psychological, or a combination of both.
Prescribe drugs to help with the dysfunction.
Intrinsic motivation
Motivation resulting from personal enjoyment of a task or activity ("I like it"; "It's fun")
Extrinsic motivation
Motivation based on obvious external rewards or threats of punishment ("I did it for the money"; "I did it to please my parents")
Hypothalamus and eating
Hypothalamus- helps regulate eating, drinking, and body temperature.
Lateral Hypothalamus- stimulates eating
Ventromedial Hypothalamus- signals you to stop eating.

Without one or the other you would over eat or starve.