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93 Cards in this Set

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maturation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
experience expectant development
Dr. Phillips talked about the idea in lecture that some aspects of are development are
dependent upon experience. The visual system, for example, requires that the organism sees light
and gets visual information in order to develop correctly. (In biopsych students often learn about
the Hubel & Wiesel experiments where they sewed 1 eye of a newborn kitten closed. If the eye
remained shut over a critical period, even if the eye was opened the visual system in the brain
will not respond to input from that eye.)
schema
concepts or framework that organizes and interprets info. (mental molds into which we pour our experiences.)
assimilation
interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas.
accommodation
adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new info.
sensorimotor stage
Piaget’s Theory
(4 stages)
(1)Sensorimotor Stage
• Birth to age 2
• Infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
• Infants experience the world thru senses and actions [looking, touching, mouthing, grasping]
• Young infants lack object permanence – the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.
• Stranger anxiety – the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
preoperational stage
Piaget’s Theory
(4 stages)
(2)Preoperational Stage
• Age 2 to 6 or 7
• A child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
• Too young to perform mental operations
• Representing things w/ words and images; use intuitive rather than logical reasoning
• Children lack the concept of conservation – the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
• Preschool children are egocentric – difficulty taking another’s point of view.
• Pretend Play
• Language Development
• Preschoolers develop the ability to infer others’ mental states when they begin forming a Theory of mind – people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states – about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict.
• Theory of mind also enables us to infer others’ feelings.
*Autism – a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’ states of mind. Said to be “mind blind.”
concrete operational stage
Piaget’s Theory
(4 stages)
(3)Concrete Operational Stage
• Age 6 or 7 to 11
• Given concrete materials, they begin to grasp conservation – the change in shape does not mean change in quantity.
• Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations.
• Children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
• Comprehend Mathematical transformations and conservation ^
formal operational stage
Piaget’s Theory
(4 stages)
(4)Formal Operational Stage
• Age 12 thru adulthood
• Reasoning expands from purely concrete (involving actual experience) to encompass abstract thinking (involving imagined realities and symbols)
• People begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
• Abstract logic
• Potential for mature moral reasoning
object permanence (aka, object constancy)
• Young infants lack object permanence – the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived. in sensorimotor stage
object permanence (aka, object constancy)
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived. (1)Sensorimotor Stage
conservation
the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects. (3)Concrete Operational Stage
egocentrism
children are egocentric – difficulty taking another’s point of view. (2)Preoperational Stage
theory of mind
• Preschoolers develop the ability to infer others’ mental states when they begin forming a Theory of mind – people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states – about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict.
• Theory of mind also enables us to infer others’ feelings.
(2)Preoperational Stage
stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age (1)Sensorimotor Stage
attachment
an emotional tie w/ another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
Powerful survival impulse that keeps infants close to their caregivers.
critical period (aka, sensitive period)
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development, certain events must occur for proper development.
imprinting
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
Children, unlike animals, do not imprint. They become attached to what they’ve known. “Mere exposure” to people/things fosters fondness.
self-concept
a sense of one’s identity and personal worth.
Positive self-concept = more confident, independent, optimistic, assertive, and sociable.
How do children’s brains change and develop over the course of infancy and
development? What implications do these changes have for children’s thinking and
behavior?
between ages 3-6 neural networks proliferate in the newborn's brain. growth is most pronounced in the frontal lobes - enables thinking, memory, and language. brain pathways develop and strengthen w/ use until puberty,when pruning eliminates excess connections. In the absence of severe abuse and neglect, matuartion- the orderly sequence of genetically determined biological processes- guids all infants along the same general course of development.
Describe the sequence of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development. What are the
milestones that children reach in each stage, and what are examples of these
milestones?
(1)Sensorimotor Stage
• Birth to age 2
Object permanence, stranger anxiety
(2)Preoperational Stage
• Age 2 to 6 or 7
Pretend play, egocentrism, language development
(3)Concrete Operational Stage
• Age 6 or 7 to 11
conservation, mathematical transformations
(4)Formal Operational Stage
• Age 12 thru adulthood
abstract logic, potential for mature moral reasoning.
Piaget’s theories and observations have been very helpful in understanding children’s
cognitive development; however, he underestimated the abilities of very young
children. What are these abilities, and what is the evidence for their very early
emergence?
underestimated young children's competence. they can recognize things, crawl to them, and manipulate them, but they have no abstract concepts or ideas. infants look longer at an unexpected scene of a car seeming to pass thru a solid object, a ball stopping in midair, or an object violationg object permanence, babies also have a head for #'s. show a baby 2 or 3 objects, put behind screen, add or take away an object, show to baby, baby does a double take when the wrong number of objects appears.
What is the sequence of Erickson’s stages of social development for children?
ERIKSON’S STAGES OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT:
• Infancy to 1 year  Trust vs. Mistrust  If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust.
• Toddlerhood (1 to 2 years)  Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt  Toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities
• Preschooler (3 to 5 years)  Initiative vs. Guilt  Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent.
• Elementary School (6 years to puberty)  Competence vs. Inferiority  Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior.
• Adolescence (teen years into 20s)  Identity vs. Role confusion  Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are.
• Young Adulthood (20s to early 40s)  Intimacy vs. Isolation  Young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated.
• Middle Adulthood (40s to 60s)  Generativity vs. Stagnation  In middle age, people discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose.
• Late Adulthood (late 60s and up)  Integrity vs. Despair  When reflecting on his/her life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure.
What are the three different parenting styles? How do they differ? What consequences
do they have for children’s social development?
Authoritarian – parents impose rules and expect obedience.
Permissive – parents submit to their children’s desires, make few demands, and use little punishment.
Authoritative – parents are both demanding and responsive. Exert control by setting rules and enforcing them, and also by explaining the reasons. Encourage open discussion [especially w/ older children]. Allow exceptions when making rules.
Authoritarian
parents impose rules and expect obedience
Permissive
parents submit to their children’s desires, make few demands, and use little punishment.
Authoritative
parents are both demanding and responsive. Exert control by setting rules and enforcing them, and also by explaining the reasons. Encourage open discussion [especially w/ older children]. Allow exceptions when making rules.
How do a child’s biological temperament and a parent’s responsiveness/maternal style
interact to affect the child’s behavior and development?
children's traits influence parenting more than vice versa. socially mature, agreeable, easygoing children evoke greater trust and warmth from their parents. parents being firm but open = child being socially competent.
Adolescence
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence. [Life between childhood and adulthood]
Starts = beginnings of sexual maturity
Ends = social achievement of independent adult status
Embarrassment is one adolescent mood
Puberty
Adolescence begins w/ puberty. the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
Primary sex characteristics
the body structures (reproductive organs = ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.
Secondary sex characteristics
non reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.
Menarche
the first menstrual period
Spermarche
– first ejaculation
Identity
one’s sense of self; the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.  role confusion gets resolved w/ a consistent and comfortable sense of who one is.
Intimacy
the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
Moral thinking
to Kohlberg’s ideas about the stages of moral development
(preconventional morality, conventional morality, postconventional morality).
Moral feeling
Moral feeling
refers to the idea that we have quick, automatic emotions when we see something that is immoral
(disgust) or morally right (elation).
Savant syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.
General intelligence (g)
factor that underlies the various clusters. A general intelligence factor that according to Spearman and others underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
Factor Analysis
statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score. Enables researchers to identify clusters of test items that measure a common ability
Emotional Intelligence
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
Creativity
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
Intelligence as one general ability or several specific abilities (how does savant
syndrome influence this argument?)
*L.L. Thurstone = Seven clusters of primary mental abilities – word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, and memory.
Intelligence involves several distinct abilities, which correlate enough to define a small general intelligence factor.
Multiple Intelligence
Intelligence comes in different packages, Brain damage may diminish one type of ability but not others, different abilities enabled out ancestors to cope w/ different environmental challenges.
We do not have one intelligence but rather multiple intelligences, each relatively independent of the others.
Emotional Intelligence and the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use
emotions
Emotional intelligence and its four components – the ability to perceive emotions (to recognize them in faces, music, and stories), to understand emotions (to predict them and how they change and blend), to manage emotions (to know how to express them in varied situations), and to use emotions to enable adaptive or creative thinking.
The relationship between intelligence and creativity
Five components of creativity –
1. Expertise – a well-developed base of knowledge.
2. Imaginative Thinking Skills – provide the ability to see things in novel ways, to recognize patterns, to make connections.
3. A venturesome personality – tolerates ambiguity and risk, perseveres in overcoming obstacles, and seeks new experiences rather than following the pack.
4. Intrinsic motivation – intrinsic pleasure and challenge of their work. People will feel most motivated by the interest, enjoyment, satisfaction, challenge of the work itself.
5. A creative environment – sparks, supports, and refines creative ideas.
Correlations between perceptual speed, neural processing speed, and intelligence
grey matter and stimulus processing time
Heritability
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied. (heritability never pertains to an individual, only to why people differ)
Our genes shape the experiences that shape us.
Stereotype Threat
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.
Flynn Effect
The Flynn effect shows that as you look back in history, as a population our IQ has increased
from generation to generation. That is, if you were to put our data all on the same scale, more
recent generations score higher on IQ measures than older generations.
Evidence for genetic vs. environmental influences on intelligence (results of twin and
adoption studies)
People w/ the same genes share comparable mental abilities. As we accumulate life experience, genetic influences – not environmental ones- become more apparent.
Early intervention programs and the effects of responsive care-giving
Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children also provide evidence of environmental influences on intelligence. The intelligence test scores of fraternal twins raised together are more similar than those of other siblings, and the scores of identical twins raised apart are less similar (tho still very highly correlated) than the scores of identical twins raised together. Studies of children reared in extremely impoverished, enriched, or culturally different environments further indicate the influence of life experiences on test scores.
Variation within groups vs. Difference between groups
• Racial groups differ in their average scores on intelligence tests.
• High-scoring people (and groups) are more likely to attain high levels of education and income.
Heredity contributes to group differences? Some say yes.
Race is not a neatly defined biological category. Cultures rise and fall over centuries, genes do not.
Sexual Response Cycle
Sexual response cycle – four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson – excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
• Excitement – genital areas become engorged w/ blood
• Plateau Phase – excitement peaks as breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates continue to increase.
• Orgasm – further increases in breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates. A women’s arousal and orgasm facilitates conception by helping propel semen from the penis, positioning the uterus to receive sperm, and drawing the sperm further inward. Same orgasm feeling for both sexes.
• Resolution – time after orgasm where arousal state returns to normal
Refractory Period
During resolution stage, male enters Refractory period – a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.
Sexual Disorder
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.
Emotional relationships w/ partner cause these problems
Estrogen
a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen level peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.
Testosterone
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
Discuss the impact of hormones on sexual motivation and behavior
Sex hormones have 2 effects: direct the physical development of male and female sex characteristics, they activate sexual behavior.
Biology is a necessary but not sufficient explanation of human sexual behavior. The hormonal fuel is essential, but so are the psychological stimuli that turn on the engine, keep it running, and shift it into high gear.
Describe the role of external stimuli and fantasies on sexual motivation and behavior
External Stimuli
Men and women become aroused when they see, hear, or read erotic material.
Imagined Stimuli
People can become sexually aroused in their dreams while sleeping.
Wide awake people become sexually aroused not only by memories of prior sexual activities but also by fantasies.
Discuss some of the forces that influence teen pregnancy and teen attitudes toward
contraception
American teens have lower rates of intercourse but lower rates of contraceptive use therefore higher rates of teen pregnancy and abortion
• Ignorance – girls have mistaken ideas about which birth control methods will protect them from pregnancy and STIs
• Guilt related to sexual activity – Not wanting to appear deliberately sexual or promiscuous, teens may hesitate to carry and produce a condom in cases where desire overtakes a person’s intent to not have sex
• Minimal communication about birth control – teens are uncomfortable discussing contraception w/ their parents, partners, and peers.
• Alcohol use – sexually active teens are typically alcohol-using teens
• Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity – TV and movie portrayals of unsafe sex w/out consequence amounts to a campaign of sex disinformation.
Describe trends in the spread of sexually transmitted infections
Unprotected sex has led to increased rates of STIs.
Predictors of sexual restraint:
• High intelligence – teens w/ high intelligence scores more often delay sex, more focused on future achievements, aware of negative consequences
• Religiosity – actively religious teens more often reserve sex for marital commitment
• Father presence – father’s absence is linked to sexual activity before age 16 and teen pregnancy.
• Participation in service learning programs – teens who volunteer as tutors/teachers’ aides/take part in community projects have lower pregnancy rates.
Summarize current views on the number of people whose sexual orientation is
homosexual, and discuss the research on environmental and biological influences on
sexual orientation
Sexual orientation – an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex (homosexual) or the other sex (heterosexual)
Heterosexuality prevails and homosexuality survives.

Sexual Orientation Statistics
3 to 4% of men are gay
1 to 2% of women are lesbian
*Sexual orientation is neither willfully chosen nor willfully changed. Like handedness, most people are one way, some or the other.
Flow
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, w/ diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one’s skills
“It’s exhilarating to flow w/ an activity that fully engages our skills.” Purposeful work enriches our lives. Flow refers to a mental state where you are completely engaged in the work you are doing.
You are totally “in the zone”. You are less aware of yourself (maybe you forget to stop for
lunch) or of time (hours may pass but it felt like no time at all). You are completely immersed in
what you’re doing, completely engaged.
Industrial-organizational psychology:
the application of psychology concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
Personnel psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development. (selecting/evaluating workers) personnel psychologists match people w/ jobs, identifying and placing well-suited candidates.
Organizational psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change. Organizational psychologists modify jobs and supervision in ways that boost morale and productivity.
Structured interviews
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales. Pinpoint strengths (attitudes, behaviors, knowledge, and skills) that distinguish high performers in a particular line of work. Has double the predictive accuracy than unstructured interviews.
Achievement motivation
a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard
High achievement motivation = achieve more
More successful are more ambitious, energetic, and persistent.
“Discipline outdoes talent”
Task leadership
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals. Directive style = keep a group centered on its mission
Social leadership
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support.
identify the three subfields of industrialorganizational
psychology
Personnel Psychology - a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development. (selecting/evaluating workers) personnel psychologists match people w/ jobs, identifying and placing well-suited candidates.
Organizational Psychology – a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change. Organizational psychologists modify jobs and supervision in ways that boost morale and productivity.
Human factors psychology - 3rd subfield of I/O psychology that explores how machines and environments can be optimally designed to fit human abilities.
Describe how personnel psychologists help organizations with employee selection, work
placement, and performance appraisal.
Psychologists in this field: identify needed job skills, decide upon selection methods, recruit and evaluate applicants, introduce and train new employees, and appraise their performance.


Harnessing Strengths
Personnel selection aims to match people’s strengths w/ work that enables them and their organizations to flourish. Your strengths are any enduring qualities that can be productively applied. To assess applicant’s strengths and decide who is best-suited to the job, personnel managers use various tools, including ability tests, personality tests, and behavioral observations in “assessment centers” that simulate job tasks
Define achievement motivation, and explain why organizations would employ an I/O
psychologist to help motivate employees and foster employee satisfaction.
Achievement Motivation – a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard
High achievement motivation = achieve more
More successful are more ambitious, energetic, and persistent.
“Discipline outdoes talent”
Grit – passionate dedication to an ambitious, long-term goal.
Describe some effective management techniques: harnessing job-relevant strengths;
Good managers want first to select the right people. Then, they aim to discern their employees’ natural talents, and develop those talents into great strengths.
Describe some effective management techniques: setting specific, challenging goals;
motivate higher achievement especially when combined w/ progress reports
Implementation intentions - action plans that specify when, where, and how they will march toward achieving those goals.
To motivate high productivity, effective leaders work w/ people to define explicit goals, elicit commitments to implementation plans, and provide feedback on progress.
Describe some effective management techniques:choosing an appropriate leadership style.
Different leaders are suited to different styles.
Task Leadership – goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals. Directive style = keep a group centered on its mission
Social leadership – group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support.
Great person theory of leadership ¬– that all great leaders share certain traits.
Transformational leadership – motivates others to identify w/ and commit themselves to the group’s mission.
Voice effect – if given a chance to voice their opinion during a decision-making process, people will respond more positively to the decision.
360-degree feedback
– you rate yourself, your manager, and your other colleagues, and you will be rated by your manager, other colleagues, and customers.
Halo-errors
occur when one’s overall evaluation of an employee, or of a trait such as their friendliness, biases ratings of their specific work-related behaviors such as their reliability.
Leniency and Severity Errors
reflect evaluators’ tendencies to be either too easy or too harsh on everyone.
Schemas
concepts or framework that organizes and interprets info. (mental molds into which we pour our experiences.)
Assimilate
interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas.
Accommodate
adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new info
*L.L. Thurstone = Seven clusters of primary mental abilities
word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, and memory.
Gardner’s Eight Intelligences
= 1. Linguistic
2. Logical-mathematical
3. Musical
4. Spatial
5. Bodily Kinesthetic
6. Intrapersonal (self)
7. Interpersonal (other people)
8. Naturalist
Robert Sternberg **TRIARCHIC THEORY**
• Analytical (academic problem-solving) Intelligence – assessed by intelligence tests, which present well-defined problems having a single right answer
• Creative Intelligence – demonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating novel ideas.
• Practical Intelligence – often required for everyday tasks, which are frequently ill-defined, with multiple solutions.
Social intelligence
the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully.
Biological Influences --> Sexual Motivation
• Sexual maturity
• Sex hormones, especially testosterone
• Sexual orientation
Psychological Influences --> Sexual Motivation
• Exposure to stimulating conditions
• Sexual fantasies
Social-Cultural Influences  Sexual Motivation
Family and society values
• Religious and personal values
• Cultural expectations
Fraternal birth order effect
men who have older brothers are somewhat more likely to be gay.
One theory is that people develop same-sex erotic attachments if segregated by gender at the time their sex drive matures.
Interviewer Illusion
interviewers often overrate their discernment because:
• Interviews disclose the interviewee’s good intentions, which are less revealing than habitual behaviors.
• Interviewers more often follow the successful careers of those they have hired than the successful careers of those they have rejected and lost track of.
• Interviewers presume that people are what they seem to be in the interview situation.
• Interviewers’ preconceptions and moods color how they perceive interviewees’ response.
Voice effect
if given a chance to voice their opinion during a decision-making process, people will respond more positively to the decision