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139 Cards in this Set

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Study of behavior and mental processes
pyschology
What is the birthdate of psychology and where
1879 and in Leipzing Germany at University of Leipzing
Name behavioral processes
yelling, screaming, laughing, crying
Name mental processes
dreams, thoughts, feelings
The view that knowledge comes from experience via the senses and science flourishes through observation and experiment
Empiricism
The first trace of psychology
In ancient Greece by Socrates and Plato
What did Socrates and Plato think?
They believed that the mind is separable from the body and continues to be after death
What did Aristotle think?
The soul is not sepearable from the body.
Who later agreed with Plato and Socrates in the 1600s?
Rene Descartes
Who wrote "An Essay concerning Human Understanding" in the 1700s?
John Locke
What did Rene Descartes think animals had
spirits in the brain
What did Locke believe?
the mind at birth is blank; experience writes it.
What formed Modern Empiricism?
Bacon and Lockes ideas
Who founded Psychology
Wilhelm Wundt
How did they discover psychology
by a machine that measured a lag between hearing and touching- it focused on reflexes "atoms of the Mind"
What process did psychology begin with
Mental
What was the first school ever?
Structuralism
What did the school of Structualism use?
introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind.
What is Introspection
Looking inward
Who introduced structuralism
Edward Bradford Titchener
What did Titchener engage people to do?
report elements of the experience after EXAMPLE: looking at rose- what did it smell like, what did it feel like
Why did structuralism fail>
because not everyone feels the same way about one particular subject
What did Structuralism focus on?
Mind all the way until the 1920s
A school of Psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable the organism to adapt, survive and flourish?
Functionalism
Why is Functionalism important?
It was the 1st american school of psychology
Functionalism was lead by
William James
James was 1 of the first professors to-
solicit end of course student evals and letting a female enter his graduate seminar
American Psychological Associations 1st Female President in 1905 was-
Mary Whiton Calkins
1st woman to get a psychology PhD and also wrote "The Animal Mind" was-
Margaret Floy Washburn
What did William James write in 12 years?
Principles of Psychology
Who studied the whole organism not just the part
Gestalt
Historic perspective that emphasized growth potential of healthy people and used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth is-
Humanistic Psychology
Wundt was a
Philospher and physiologist
James was a(n)
American Philospher
Ivan Pavlov was a
Russian Physiologist
Sigmund Freud was an
austrian physician
What did Freud do
He emphasized the ways emotional responses to childhood experiences and our unconcious thought processes affect our behavior
Championed psychology as the sciece of behavior by using "little Albert" was
John B. Watson and help by Rosalie Rayner
Behaviorist that rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior was
B.F. Skinner
Made a quilt, "Crazy about Psychology", about the 1st Century and professor at College of New Jersey
Nancy S. Breland
Both Emphasized importance of current enviornmental influences on growth potential, and importance of meeting our needs for love was-
Rogers and Maslow. They found humanistic psychology to be to mechanistic.
1960s psychology recaptured mental processes and how we retain information
Cognitive Revolution- it involoved Pervieve, process and Remember
Found outside of school by Freud with study of Personality
Psychoanalysis
thought that Unconcious Mental Behavior guided everything we did. "Free Association" When you say cat, you think Dog. it was by dream anaylsis
Abnormal Behavior
Why people do what they do-
Behaviorism
Watson was trained as a
Functionalist
The study of the interaction of thought processes and brain function is-
Cognitive Neuroscience- It also helped in treating depression.
Subjective experiences inferred from Behavior-
Mental processes
Anything an organism does
Behavior
The key word in psychology's definition is
Science
Psychology can trace its roots back to
India, China, the Middle East and Europe
Buddha and Confucious focused on-
the power and origin of ideas
_____ ran the first true experiments in psychology's first lab.
Wilhelm Wundt
until the 1920's, psychology was a
"science of mental life" studied through introspection.
humanistic psychology led by watson and skinner in the 1960s, focused on three things.
1. importance of enviornmental influences 2. personal growth 3. the needs for love and acceptance
Cognitive Psychologists are broadening our understanding as
"science of mental and behavior processes."
The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of pscyhological traits and behaviors is-
Nature-Nurture Issue
Caused by genes, enviornment of the interaction of these.
Nature-Nurture Issue
The princle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations is
Natural selection
The biggest and most persistent issue of psychology was
The relative contributions of biology and experience.
argued that natural selection shapes behviors as well as bodies in 1831-
Charles Darwin
Darwin wrote what in 1859 that explained diversity of life by propsing an evolutionary process.
Origin of Species
Animal structures (such as why polar bear coats are white) and animal behaviors (such as the emotional expressions associated with lust and rage) is the theory called
Natural Selection
Hereditary and environmental influences on temperament, intelligence, and other traits is used on identical twins because of their same genes-
A nature-made nature-nurture experiment
The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon is

Example would be the explanation of why grizzly bears hibernate.
levels of analysis
an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis is
biopsychosocial approach
______ works on what nature endows
Nurture
Genetic predispositions
genetic mutations
natural selection of adaptive physiology and behaviors
Genes responding to the enviornment
Biological influences
Learned fears and other learned expectations
Emotional responses
Cognitive processing and peceptual interpreations
Psychological influences
Presence of others
Cultural,societal, and family expectations
Peer and other group influences
Compelling models (ex. media)
Social-Cultural Influences
3 different ways mind and body work together-
1. Nature-Nurture Issue
2. Stability vs. Change
3. Irraitonality vs. Rationality
Are we changing? Do our characteristics change as we get older?
Stability vs. Change
Chemistry problems in brain, genes, such as alcholosim deals with the
Biological influences
Emotional, personality disorder deals with the
psychological influences
Peers, those around you, media deals with
Social-Cultural Influences
How the body and brain enable eotions, memories, and sensory experiences; How are messages transmitted within the body?
Neuroscience
How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes; how does evolution influence behavior tendencies?
Evolutionary
How much our genes and our enviornment influence our individual differences
Behavior Genetics
How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
Psychodynamic
How we learn observable responses; How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations?
Behavioral
How we encode, process, store, and retrieve info. How do we use info in remembering?
Cognitive
How behavior and thinking vary across situations and culturals
social-cultural
Someone working from the ___________ perspective might study the brain circuits taht produce the physical state of being "red in the Face" and "hot under the collar."
Neroscience
Someone working from the _________ perspective might analyze how aner facilitated teh survival of our ancestors' genes.
Evolutionary
Someone working from the _____ perspective might study how heredity and experience influence our individul differences in temperament.
Behavior Genetics
Someone working from the _______ erspective might view an outburst as an outlet for unconscious hostility.
Psychodynamic
Someone working from the _________ perspective might study the facial expressions and body gestures that accompany anger, or might attempt to determine which external stimuli result in angry responses or aggressive acts.
Behavioral
Someone working on the ______ perspective might study how our interpretion of a situation affects our anger and how our aner affects our thinking.
Cognitive
Someone working on the _________ perspective might explore which situations produce the most anger, and how expressions of anger vary across cultural contexts.
Social-Cultural
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
basic rsearch.
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
applied research
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often realted to school, work or marriage) and in achieveing greater well being
counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
clinical psychology
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, Drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.
Psychiatry
Experiment with, observe, test, and treat behavior.
psychologists
both _ and _ psychologists administer and interpret tests, provide conseling and therapy. and sometimes conduct basic and applied research.
Counseling and clinical
The psychological analysis of historical characters
Psycohistory
the study of language and thinking
psycholinguistics
the study of crackpots
psychoceramics
contemporary psychology takes place in
69 countries
the view of plato and descartes
nature
the view of aristotle and locke
nurture.
Psychologists now believe taht in most cases, every psychological event is simultaneously a
biological event
often done by biological, developmental, cognitve, personality, and social psychologists
basic research
sometimes conducted by industrial/organizational psychologists
applied research
is a doctor and perscribes medication
psychiatrist
longer years and PhD in psychology; cannot perscribe medicine in some states
psychologist
i knew it all along
hingsight bias
misjudge our ability, when we know what we do seek out evidence like babies "i can do it"
overconfidence
interrelated contexts; 1. effectively organize a range of ovservation 2. apply clear predictions
Theory
testable prediction
Hypothesis
specifies the operations or procedures used to produce or measure something; gives it a numerical value
operational definition
repeating the essence of a research study ex: somebody may count aggression or violence differently but use same essence
replication
4 steps of Scientific Method
1. theory
2. hypothesis
3. operational definition
4. replication
4 Goals of Psychology
1. Describe Behavior
2. Explain Behavior
3. Predict Behavior
4. Change Behavior
Nonexperimental Methods:
1. Descriptive Study Methods
2. Correlation
2 types of Descriptive Study Methods:
1. Case Study
2. Survey
2 types of Correlation:
1. Positive Correlation
2. Negative Correlation
1 or more studied in great detail ex: individual may be atypical limitations
Case Study
describe characteristics on small amount of people
survey
problems with using a survey:
1. wording effects
2. Random sampling
3. Naturalistic observation
it may not be understandable
wording effects
sample biased; 1 in which every person in an entire group could be chosen representative group according to proportions
random sampling
observing behavior in natural enviornment; it is time consuming, cost effective, and lacks control. Behavior changes when know someone is watching
Naturalistic observation
Statistical measure of relationship. It DOESNOT prove cause and effect just that there is a relationship.
Correlation
direct relationship between 2 variables either is up and up or down and down. ex: attendance in class and good test grades; lack of sleep and energy level
Positive Correlation
inversely related up and down
brushing teeth and tooth decay
2 types of Experimental Method
1. Experimental Group "treatment"
2. Control Group
what you manipulate; what is being studied
independent variable
what you measure; outcome factor
dependent variable
researchers dont know who is taking what
double-blind procedure
when researchers influence the outcome
experimental bias
how to measure
Data
frequently occuring
mode
score in the middle
median
average divide by the number
mean
2 types of errors with statistics:
1. Type 1 error
2. Type 2 error
conclude there is a difference when there is not
Type 1 error
conclude there is not a difference when there was
type 2 error