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18 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is an attitude?
favorable or unfavorable, rarely neutral; evluative; exhibited in beliefs, behavior, etc.
What is an interjected attitude?
an attitude that is from someone else, that we do not analyze, but merely accept, or swallow
Attitude Ambivalence
when both pos. and neg. views exist in the same attitude
Modes of Attitude Formation
1) mere exposure (comfort in familiarity)
2) classical conditioning
3)instrumental conditioning (rewards)
4) observational learning
5) social comparison (we compare our attitudes with others to see if it's "right")
6) cognitive appraisal (pros, cons; rare)
7)genetic factors (ex. openness to new experiences)
When do attitudes accurately predict behavior?
1)in absence of situational constraints
2)when formed through direct experience
3) when attitudes are strong
4) when measured at same specificity
5) when attitudes are assessed right before behavior
6) when held by low self-monitors
What can you do to reduce cognitive dissonance?
- change attitudes
- add cognitions (justifications)
- alter the importance of discrepancy
- reduce perceived choice
- change behavior
Self-Perception Theory
people change their attitudes through rational processes
Impression Management Theory
attitude change is presenting for others
Prob: some attitude changes are private
Self-Affirmation Theory
change attitudes to maintain positive view of self
Insufficient Justification Effect
the smallest incentive to get someone to do something is usually the most effective in getting them to like it and continue doing it
Persuasion - Elaboration Likelihood Model
Central route - pros and cons
Peripheral route - emotional engagement
Successful commnicators and msg.s
- communicators are credible
- communicators are likable
- msg. contains large amounts of relevant info
- msg.s are repeated
- msg.s evoke positive emotions
Other aspects of msg.s
1 vs. 2-sided arguments
Reason (for educated and interested audience) vs. Emotion (uneducated or disinterested)
Behaviorism
says that a situation causes a reaction
Self
having a single/own nature or character
Self-concept
organized collection of beliefs and attitudes
- congruent self: self concept that is accurate with reality
- incongruent self: inaccurate representation of true self
Self-efficacy
belief in one's own abilities
Psychoanalytic theory and self
Ego is self
dual nature: - ego organizes the way we experience ourselves; - initiates and undertakes actions