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23 Cards in this Set

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
A handbook of clinical disorders used for diagnosing psychopathology. Current edition focuses on 5 axises of mental disorders and patients must be assesed on each axis.
Multiaxial system
The system used in the DSM that provides assessment along five axes describing important mental health factors.
Familial systems model
Considers symptoms within an individual as indicating problems within the family.
Sociocultural model
Views psychopathology as the result of the interaction between individuals and their cultures. E.G. Schizophrenia is usually found among the lower classes whereas eating disorders prevail in the middle and upper classes.
cognitive-behavioral approach
Based on premise the behavior is learned...thoughts can become maladaptive and produce maladaptive behavior. E.G. Mouse playing with kid hears loud noise and then gets scared of kid.
diathesis stress model
proposes that a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability is coupled with a precipitating event.
anxiety disorders
Characterized by the experience of excessive anxiety in the absence of true danger.
phobias
Having an exaggerated fear and out of proportion to the actual danger. Two types of phobias. A) Specific: Fear of an object, e.g. snakes. B)Social: Fear of being neg. evaluated by others...public speaking, etc.
Women are diagnosed more often than men...much more in specific ph. only slightly more for social ph.
Generalized anxiety disorder
Diffuse state of constant anxiety not associated with any specific object or event. Causes distractibility...tension, health problems. More prev. in women.
panic disorder
An anxiety disorder characterized by sudden and overwhelming attacks of terror. dizzy, lightheaded, heart race, etc. More incidence of suicide attempts.
Agoraphobia
Fear of being in situations in which escape is difficult or impossible, such as a crowded shopping mall. Related disorder to panic disorder in that agoraphobia can lead to panic attacks.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (ocd)
Anxiety disorder characterized by frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive actions.
Biological and cognitive behavioral factors that can produce OCD.
Bio evidence shows OCD patients exhibit a smaller, abnormal caudate nucleus which is the part of the basal ganglia that helps supress impulses. Therefore the prefrontal cortex becomes overactive to compensate. leading to obsessions.Learned behaviors that reduce anxiety such as hand washing then become compulsions.
Link between panic disorder and agoraphobia
panic disorder-biological basis and fam. history studies. Abnorm. of locus coeruleus=increased arousal of cen. ner. system.
Agoraphobia-learned behavior. Many believe it stems from untreated panic attacks scaring people into avoiding groups or places where they might occur.
Major Depression
characterized by severe negative moods and a lack of interest in normally pleasurable activities. In addition, must experience symptoms such as weight flux,sleep dist., appetite flux, low energy, no concent., guilt, thoughts of suicide, etc.
dysthymia
A form of depression that is not severe enough to be diagnosed as major depression. Experience neg. mood most of day, more days than not, for at least two years. Extended length of episode made some psych. consider it a personality as opposed to a mood disorder.
Bipolar disorder
mood disorder charact. by alternating periods of depression and mania.
cyclothymia
A less extreme form of bipolar disorder
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
Periods of depression that are linked to the times of year with minimal sunlight.
learned helplessness model
A cognitive model of depression in which people feel unable to control events around them.
schizophrenia
a mental disorder characterized by alterations in perceptions, emotions, thoughts, or consciousness.
positive symptoms
Symptoms of schizophrenia, such as delusions and hallucinations, that are excesses in behavior.
negative symptoms
Symptoms of schizophrenia marked by deficits in functioning such as apathy, lack of emotion, and slowed speech and movement.