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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Waking Consciousness
(2)
-Consciousness
-Selective Attention
Selective Attention
-focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
electroencephalogram (EEG)
-A measurement of electrical activity within the brain
stage 1 sleep
-The state of transition between wakefulness and sleep, characterized by relatively rapid, low-voltage brain waves
stage 2 sleep
-A sleep deeper than that of stage 1, characterized by a slower, more regular wave pattern, along with momentary interruptions of “sleep spindles”
sleep spindles
-Sharply pointed, spiky waves on an EEG, indicating stage 2 sleep
stage 3 sleep
-A sleep characterized by slower brain waves, with greater peaks and valleys in the wave pattern
stage 4 sleep
-The deepest stage of sleep, during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation
Alpha Waves
-slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain
Delta Waves
-large, slow waves of deep sleep
rebound effect
-An increase in REM sleep after one has been deprived of it
Restoration theory
-body wears out during the day and sleep is necessary to put it back in shape
Preservation and protection theory
-sleep emerged in evolution to preserve energy and protect during the time of day when there is little value and considerable danger
Insomnia
-persistent problems in falling or staying asleep
Narcolepsy
-uncontrollable sleep attacks
Sleep Apnea
(2)
-temporary cessation of breathing during sleep
-momentary reawakenings
Freud's 3 theories on dreams
-Unconscious wish fulfullment
-Latent content
-Manifest content
Unconscious wish fullfullment theory
-dreams represent unconscious wishes that the dreamer wants to fulfull
Latent content of dreams
(3)
-the "disguised" meanings of dreams
-the wishes of dreamer
-hidden by more obvious subjects
Manifest content of dreams
-the overt story line of dreams, symbols
When do night terrors usually occur?
-within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, in stage 4
Activation-synthesis theory
-Hobson's theory that dreams are a result of random electrically stimulated memories lodged in the brain, then brain weaves it into a story line
Posthypnotic Amnesia
-supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis
Psychoactive drug
-a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
Tolerance
-diminishing effect of the high with regular use
Withdrawal
-discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use
Depressants
(2)
-drugs that reduce neural activity
-slow body functions
Name 4 depressants
-alcohol
-barbiturates
-tranquilizers
-opiates
Alcohol's affects
(2)
-affects motor skills, judgment, and memory
-reduces self awareness
Barbiturates' affects
-depress activity of central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment
Tranquilizers' examples & affects
-valium or xanax; reduce anxiety & induce relaxation
Opiates' examples & affects
-morphine & heroin; depress neural activity thereby lessening pain and anxiety
Alcoholics are the ___ leading killer?
3rd
Stimulants
(2)
-Drugs that excite neural activity
-Speed up body functions
Name 6 stimulants
-amphetamines
-cocaine
-ecstasy
-hallucinogens
-LSD
-THC
Amphetamine's affects
(2)
-stimulate neural activity, causing speeded up body functions and energy and mood changes
-pleasurable feelings
Cocaine's affects
(2)
-depends on dosage, form, personality and situation
-euphoria, followed by depression and agitation
Ecstasy's affects
(2)
-mild hallucinogen
-dangerous short and long term effects
Hallucinogens' examples and affects
-LSD, Ecstasy, marijuana
-alter perception and evoke sensory images
LSD's (or acid's) affects
-powerful hallucinogenic drug
THC's affects
(5)
-distortion of time
-increased sensitivity to sounds and colors
-impair attention and memory
-change hormonal cycles
-mild hallucinogens
Why take drugs?
(5)
-perceived pleasure of experience
-escape from pressure/stress
-peer pressure
-availability
-thrill of trying something new
LEARNING
-relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING
(2)
-learning that two events occur together
two things become linked because of their occurrence.
-Learning to associate two events
Classical (or Pavlovian) Conditioning
-We learn to associate two stimuli (in which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response through its association with a stimulus that naturally brings about the response)
Operant Conditioning
-We learn to associate a response and its consequence
Ivan Pavlov
(4)
-Russian physician/ neurophysiologist
-studied digestive secretions
-nobel prize 1904
-1849-1936
Pavlov’s Classic Experiment
-dogs and salivation
Neutral Stimulus
-before conditioning, a stimulus that the does not naturally bring about a response.
Unconditioned Stimulus & example
-UCS, stimulus that naturally and automatically brings about a response, without having been learned.
-Smell of food
Unconditioned Response (2) and example
-UCR, unlearned, natural response to the unconditioned stimulus. (needs no training )
-The event that takes on new meaning through conditioning.
-salivation at the smell of food Involuntary response or reaction
Conditioned Stimulus and example
-CS, a once neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a CR after it has been paired with an unconditional stimulus. originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
-Food
Conditioned Response (2) and example
-CR, learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus.
-The new behavior that is acquired through learning.
-excitement of bell sound that leads to food
Acquisition (3) (in classical and operant conditioning)
-the initial stage in classical conditioning.
-the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response
-in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
Extinction (3) (in classical and operant conditioning)
-diminishing of a CR
-in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS
-in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced
Spontaneous Recovery
-reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR
Generalization
-tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses
Discrimination
-in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS
OPERANT CONDITIONING #2
(3)
-Behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement and diminished if followed by punishment
-occurs when people or animals learn by the consequences of their responses.
-These consequences may consist of either reinforcement or punishment.
Law of Effect
-Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Operant Behavior
(2)
-operates (acts) on environment
-produces consequences
Respondent Behavior
-occurs as an automatic response to stimulus
Skinner Box
-chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water
Shaping
-operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal
Reinforcer
-any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Conditioned Reinforcer or secondary reinforcer
-reinforcers that acquire positive value through experiences (money, smiles, grades)
Positive reinforcement
-occurs when something is added to increase the response rates
Negative reinforcement
-which is different from punishment, occurs when something is removed in order to increase the response rate
Two kinds of punishment
-Positive punishment
-Negative punishment
Positive punishment
-when something is given to decrease the response rate
Negative punishment
-consists of removing something to decrease the response rate
Disadvantages to using punishment
(6)
-Often ineffective—if not delivered right away
-Use of physical punishment: teach that aggression is OK
-Begin to fear the “punisher”
-Physical punishment given by angry person who may be more likely to lose control
-Reduces self esteem of recipient
-Does not convey info about what is appropriate behavior
To be effective in punishment:
-to be accompanied by specific info about behavior being punished; along with specific suggestions concerning more desirable behaviors
Cognitive-Social learning theory
-The study of the thought processes that underlie learning
Observational Learning
- Learning through observing the behavior of another person called a model
learning by observing others
Alfred Bandura’s Experiments (example and definition)
-Bobo doll
-we look and we learn
Modeling
-process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
model
-A person serving as an example to an observer; if a model’s behavior is rewarded, the observer may imitate that behavior
Cognitive Map
-mental representation of the layout of one’s environment
-Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it
Latent Learning
-Learning in which a new behavior is acquired but not demonstrated until reinforcement is provided
Intrinsic Motivation
-desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective
Extrinsic Motivation
-desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments
behavior modification
-A technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones
Brian's mother prepared a tuna sandwich. The mayo she used had been left out too long and was tainted. Not long after eating, Brian felt nauseated and had to rush to the bathroom. Thereafter, the mention of a tuna sandwich would send Brian scurrying to the bathroom with a rolling stomach. What is the UCR, UCS, CR, and CS?
UCR: being sick
UCS: bad mayo
CR: nausea feeling
CS: tuna sandwich
Memory
-persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Flashbulb Memory
-a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Encoding
(2)
-the processing of information into the memory system
-i.e., extracting meaning
Sensory Memory
-the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
Working Memory
-focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information
Automatic Processing
(3) w/*s
-unconscious encoding of incidental information
*space
*time
*frequency
-well-learned information
*word meanings
-we can learn automatic processing
*reading backwards
Effortful Processing
-requires attention and conscious effort
Rehearsal
(1) w/2*s
-conscious repetition of information
*to maintain it in consciousness
*to encode it for storage
Mnemonics
(2)
-memory aids
-especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
Hierarchies
-complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories
Iconic Memory
(2)
-a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
-a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more that a few tenths of a second
Echoic Memory
-momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
Amnesia
-the loss of memory
Explicit Memory
(2)
-memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
-also called declarative memory
hippocampus
-center in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
Implicit Memory
(2)
-retention independent of conscious recollection
-also called procedural memory
Recall
-measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier
Recognition
-Measure of memory in which the person has only to identify items previously learned
Relearning
-memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material a second time
Priming
-activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
Mood-congruent Memory
(2)
-tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current mood
-memory, emotions, or moods serve as retrieval cues
State-dependent Memory
-what is learned in one state (while one is high, drunk, or depressed) can more easily be remembered when in same state
Proactive (forward acting) Interference
-disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information
Retroactive (backwards acting) Interference
-disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old information
Source Amnesia
-attributing to the wrong source an event that we experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined (misattribution)
Storage
-Retaining information
Retrieval
-Getting information out
Storage for Short-Term Memory
-limited in duration and capacity
Storage for Long-Term Memory
(1) w/1*
-Strong emotions make for stronger memories
*some stress hormones boost learning and retention
Deja Vu (French)
-already seen
Motivated Forgetting
-people unknowingly revise memories
Forgetting
Retrieval
-Forgetting can result from failure to retrieve information from long-term memory
Repression
-defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Memory Construction
(2)w/7*s
-We filter information and fill in missing pieces
-Most people can agree on the following:
*Injustice happens
*Incest and sexual abuse happens
*Forgetting happens
*Recovered memories are commonplace
*Memories recovered under hypnosis or drugs are especially unreliable
*Memories of things happening before age 3 are unreliable
*Memories, whether false or real, are upsetting
Misinformation Effect
-incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
How to Improve Your Memory:
(4)
-Activate retrieval cues by mentally recreating situations and mood
-Recall events while they are fresh-- before you encounter misinformation
-Minimize interference
-Test your own knowledge
*rehearse
*determine what you do not yet know