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42 Cards in this Set

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What does "mental processes" mean?
What the brain does when a person stores, recalls,or uses information, or has specific feelings.
What does "behavior" mean?
The outwardly observable acts of an individual, alone or in a group.
What are the goals of psychlogy?
Describe, explain, predict, and control mental processes and behavior.
What is a clinical psychologist?
Provides psychotherapy and is trained to administer and interpret pshchological tests.
What are the typical activities that a clinical psychologist might do?
Meets with patients, meeting with other psychologist, supervising psychotherapists in training, going out to the community, and lecturing at schools.
What is psychotherapy?
Helping clients learn to change so they can cope with troublesome thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
What is a clinical neuropsychologist?
Are clinical psychologist who work specifically with tests designed to diagnose the effects of brain damage on thoughts, feelings and behavior to indicate which part of the brain are impaired following trauma.
What does Ph.D stand for?
Doctor of philosophy.
What is a counseling psychologist?
Help people deal with issues like choosing a career, marrying, raising a family, and performing at work.
What are academic psychologists and what do they spend their time doing?
They are psychologists who focus on teaching and researching.
What do applied psychologists do?
Studies how to improve products and procedures and conducts research to help solve specific practical problems.
What are the three most common types of psychologist?
Clinical, generalists, and counseling.
What are the three least common types of psychologists?
Developmental, educational, and social.
In 1997, what percentage of Ph.D's in psychology was earned by women?
Two thirds.
How is informed consent related to research ethics?
Before agreeing to participate participants must be informed as to what they will have to do and the risk involved.
What is an IRB and what does it do?
Its the Institutional Review Board, they moniter all research projects considering the potential risks and benifits of each study, and decides whether the study can be performed.
How do research ethics apply to non-human amimals?
The animals must have proper housing and that they are not mistreated.
What is a variable?
An aspects of a situation that can vary, or change specifically, A characteristic of a substance, quanity, or entity that is measurable.
What is a hypothesis?
A tentitive idea that might explain a set of observation.
What is an operational definition?
A definition of a variable that specifies how it is measured or manipulated.
What is a theory?
An interlocking set of concepts or principles that explain a set of observations.
What is meant by prediction?
An expectation about specific events that should occur in particular circumstances if the theory or hypothesis is correct.
A good theory is falsifiable, what does this mean?
It means that the theory makes predictions that it can't "squirm" out of.
What are three types of descriptive research?
Naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys.
What is correlation?
A relationship in which changes in the measurements of a variable are accompanied by changes in the measurements of another variable.
What is an independent variablr?
The aspect of the situation that is intentionally varied.
What is a dependent variable?
The aspect of the situation that is measured.
What is a confound?
An aspect of a situation that has become entangled with the aspects that you have chosen to vary.
How do control groups eliminate confounds?
A control group holds constant or controls all of the variables in the experiment.
What does random assingment mean?
Participants are assigned randomly, by chance.
What is the difference between reliablility and validity?
Reliability means consistancy and validity means that a method provides a true measure of what it is supposed to measure.
What are response and sampling biases?
Response bias means that people tend to respond in a particular way regardles of actual beliefs, sampling bias occurs when participants or items are nit randomly chosen.
What is a double-blind expeiriment?
Where the participants are blind to the predictions of the study and the experimentor is also the same.
What are descriptive statistics?
Are concise ways of summarizing properties of sets ofnumbers.
What does a normal distrabution look like?
Like a shape of a bell.
What does standard diviation reflect?
The average variability.
What is percentile rank?
The percentage of data that have values at or below a particular value.
What are inferential statistics?
Are the results of a test that reveal whether differences or patterns in measurements reflect true diff. or just chance.
What is statistical significance?
The measured relationship is not simply due to chance.
What is meta-analysis?
Is a technique that allows researchers to combine results from different studies.
How do psychologists define learning?
As a relatively long term change that results from expeirience.
What is the simplist form of learning?
Habituation, repeated exposure to the stimulus decreases and organisms responsiveness.