Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/30

Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
PSYCHOLOGY
the science of behavior, what we do, and mental perception
NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION
study behavior in natural environments
SURVEYS
questionnaires or interviews designed to test opinion
CASE STUDY
in-depth study of one person or a small group
EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
allows you to test a cause-effect relationship, how one variable changes another
WHO FOUNDED PSYCHOLOGY AND WHEN?
William Lundt, in the late 1800's
WHAT ARE THE FOUR BASIC STEPS TO THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD?
1. develop a hypothesis
2. design a study and collect data
3. analyze data and draw conclusions using statistics
4. report your findings
HYPOTHESIS
spcific question or prediction to be tested, describes the relationship between 2 or more variables
VARIABLE
anything that can change from one situation to another or differ from person to person
DESCRIPTIVE METHOD
allows you to describe and observe behavior
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
what you put in -> cause
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
what you get out -> effect
EXPERIMENTAL GROUP/CONDITION
group exposed to the independent variable
CONTROL GROUP/CONDITION
group not exposed to the independent variable
PLACEBO CONTROL GROUP
a type of control group where subjects are exposed to a fake independent variable
EXPECTANCY EFFECTS
changes that occur because subjects expect them to occur (placebo effects)
DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS
subtle cues by the researcher that influence outcome. Cues signal the expected response
DOUBLE-BLIND STUDY
a study in which the subject and the experior do not know which group the subject is assigned to
CORRELATION
how strongly 2 variables are related to one another
POSITIVE CORRELATION
varioables vary together - both go up or down
NEGATIVE CORRELATION
variables move in opposite directions
MEMORY
involves three mentalk processes:
1. encoding
2. storage
3. retrieval
ENCODING
transform information into a form that can be entered and retained
STORAGE
retain information for later use
RETRIEVAL
recover the stored info into conscious awareness
WHAT ARE THE 3 STAGES OF MEMORY?
1. sensory memory
2. short-term memory
3. long-term memory
SENSORY MEMORY
large capacity: registers environmental info so the world appears continuous - holds up to 3 seconds - info that you pay attention to may be moved into the next stage
SHORT-TERM MEMORY
working memory) limited capacity
-holds new info from sensory memory and retrieves moved info from long-term memory "workbench"
-holds up to 20 seconds
-info that is actively being processed may be encoded for storage in LTM, the rest is displaced by new info and decays
-can hold info longer if it is repeated over and over
MAINTENANCE REHEARSAL
when info is repeated over and over to remember it better
CHUNKING
when information is grouped in sets in order to memorize it