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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
accommodation
Modifying schemas as an infant
tries out familiar schemas on objects that don't fit them.
assimilation
Taking in new info about objects by using existing
schemas on objects that fit those schemas.
attachment
A deep, affectionate, close, and enduring relationship with a person with whom a baby has shared many experiences.
attachment behavior
Actions such as crying, smiling, vocalizing, & gesturing that help bring an infant into closer proximity to its caretaker.
attachment theory
The idea that children form a close attachment to their earliest caretakers and that this attachment pattern can affect aspects of the children’s later life.
authoritarian parents
Parents who are firm, punitive, and unsympathetic.
authoritative parents
Parents who reason with their children and are firm but understanding.
behavioral genetics
The study of the effect of genes on behavior.
chromosomes
Structures in every biological cell that contain genetic information in the form of genes.
concrete operations
Piaget's 3rd stage of cognitive development, during which children can learn to count, measure, add, and subtract.
conservation
The ability to recognize that the important properties of substances or objects, such as quantity, volume, or weight, remain constant despite changes in shape, length, or position.
conventional reasoning
Moral reasoning that reflects a concern about other people as well as the belief that morality consists of following rules and conventions.
critical period
An interval during which certain kinds of growth must occur if development is to proceed normally.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
The molecular structure of a gene that provides the genetic code.
developmental psychology
(The psychological specialty that)
Documents the course of people’s social, emotional, moral, and intellectual development over the life-span.
embryo
The developing individual from 2 wks-2 mos after fertilization.
ethnic identity
The part of a person’s identity that reflects the racial, religious, or cultural group to which that person belongs.
fetal alcohol syndrome
A pattern of defects found in babies born to women who drink heavily during pregnancy.
fetus
The developing individual from the third month after conception until birth.
formal operational period
Piaget's 4th stage of cognitive development,
characterized by the ability to engage in hypothetical thinking.
gender roles
Patterns of work, appearance, & behavior
that society associates w/ being male or female.
generativity
The concern of adults in their 40's w/generating something enduring.
genes
Hereditary units, located on chromosomes, that contain biological instructions inherited from both parents, providing the blueprint for physical development.
identity crisis
The phase during which an adolescent attempts to develop an integrated self-image as a unique person by pulling together self-knowledge acquired during childhood.
information processing
The process of taking in, remembering or forgetting, and using information.
maturation
Natural growth or change triggered by biological factors independent of the environment.
moral development
The growth of an individual’s understanding of the concepts of right and wrong.
object permanence
The knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in view.
parenting style
The varying patterns of behavior—ranging from permissive to authoritarian—that parents display as they interact with and discipline their children.
permissive parents
Parents who give their children complete freedom and lax discipline.
personality
The pattern of psychological and behavioral characteristics by which each person can be compared and contrasted with others.
postconventional reasoning
Moral reasoning that reflects moral judgments based on personal standards or universal principles of justice, equality, and respect for human life.
preconventional reasoning
Moral reasoning that is NOT based on the conventions or rules that guide social interactions in a society.
preoperational period
Piaget's 2nd stage of cognitive development, where children begin to understand, create, and use symbols that represent things that aren't present.
puberty
The condition of being able, for the first time, to reproduce.
reflexes
Simple, involuntary, unlearned behaviors directed by the spinal cord without instructions from the brain.
schemas
Mental representations of what we know and expect about the world.
sensorimotor period
Piaget's 1st stage of cognitive development,
when the infant’s mental activity is confined to sensory perception & motor skills.
sex roles
(see gender roles)
socialization
The process by which parents, teachers, and others teach children the skills and social norms necessary to be well-functioning members of society.
temperament
An individual’s basic, natural disposition, that is evident from infancy.
teratogens
Harmful substances, such as alcohol and other drugs, that can cause birth defects.
terminal drop
A sharp decline in mental functioning that tends to occur in late adulthood, a few months or years before death.
uninvolved parents
Parents who invest as little time, money, and effort in their children as possible.