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32 Cards in this Set

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A mechanical, repetitive procedure fo rsolving a problem
algorithm
The tendency to respond to some stimuli more than others or to remember some more than others
attention
A brief period after perceiving a stimulus, during which it is difficult to attend to another stimulus
attentional blink
A procedure that extracts information from one part of the visual field at a time
attentive process
The strategy of assuming that how easily one can remember examples of some kind of event indicates how common the event actually is
availability heuristic
Data about the frequency or probability of a given item
base-rate information
Able to use two languages about equally well
bilingual
A condition characterized by inarticulate speech and by difficulties with both using and understanding grammatical devices- prepositions, conjunctions, word endings, complex sentences structures, and so forth
Broca's aphasia
Then tendency to fail to detect changes in any part of a scene to which we are not focusing our attention
change blindness
The processes of thinking, gaining knowledge, and dealing with knowledge
cognition
Then tendency to accept one hypothesis and then look for evidence to support it, instead of considering other possibilities
confirmation bias
The careful evaluation of evidence for and against any conclusion
critical thinking
A period when the eyes are steady
fixation
The tendency to answer a question differently when it is framed (phrased) differently
framing effect
The tendency to adhere to a single approach to a problem or a single way of using an item
fruncitonal fixedness
Strategies for simplifying a problem or for guiding an investigation
heuristics
A built-in mechanism for acquiring language
language acquisition device
A unit of meaning
morpheme
The belief that one's opinions or predictions are highly correct when in fact they are not
overconfidence
A unit of sound
phoneme
A procedure for extracting information automatically and simlutaneously across a large portion of the visual field
preattentive process
The ability to express new ideas
productivity
A familiar or typical example of a category
prototype
The tendency to assume that, if an item is similar to members of a particular category, it is probably a member of that category itself
representativeness heuristic
A quick jump in the focus of the eyes from one point to another
saccade
The process by which the activiation of one concept also activates or primes other concepts that are linked to it
spreading activation
The tendency to read a word, especially if it is a color name, in spite of instructions to disregard the word and state the color of the ink in which it is printed
Stroop effect
The willingness to do something we wouldn't otherwise choose to do because of money or effort already spent
sunk cost effect
A system for converting a deep structure of a language into a surface structure
transformational grammar
A condition marked by difficulty recalling the names of objects and impaired comprehension of language
Wernicke's apashia
A genetic condition characterized by mental retardation in most regards but skillful use of language
Williams syndrome
Identifying a letter with greater ease when it is part of a whole word than when it is presented by itself
word-superiority effect