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58 Cards in this Set

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Development
More-or-less predictable changes in behavior that co-occur with chronological development
Imprinting
Lorenz: Baby duckling attach to the 1st moving object they see…
Critical Period
A time when input from the environment is necessary for genetic instructions to be realized.
Early Social Deprivation
Harlow’s study with infant monkeys—the need for contact comfort
Normative Investigations
What kids at given age are capable of doing represents the norm, and established the developmental age. Descriptive only.
ie: height norms (growth spurts: girls age 12, boys 14)
Historical Method
Historical Investigations examine how the culture effects development. For example:
Growing up during the “Great Depression” and sense of security.
The Effects of living through a war and sense of urgency.
Feminism and sex-role stereotypes?
The effects of divorce on development
Experimental investigations
Control over extraneous sources of influence on the dependent variable (DV).
Direct control over an independent variable (IV).
Allows a cause and effect inference
The effects of delay on infant performance in a two-choice hiding game.
Hide toy on right or left, make baby wait 0, 3 or 8 seconds before looking for hidden toy.
Delay is the IV, Correct choice performance the DV
Memory is defined as correct choice
Cross Sectional Designs
Looks at behavior at several different ages, but there are different people in each age group.
Longitudinal Designs
Looks at behavior at several different ages, but in the same people as they grow older (the same people are tested several times)
Cross Sequential Designs
Begin with age cohort groups at several different ages (cross-sectional) and follow them longitudinally.
Cognitive Development: Piaget Specific Heredity
The physical capabilities of the organism (e.g., color vision)
Cognitive Development: Piaget
General Heredity
Organization—The progressive differentiation and integration, and organization of capabilities.
Cognitive Development: Piaget
Assimilation
Change reality to conform to what we know. Changing new to old so as to make it fit with what we know.
Cognitive Development: Piaget
Accomodation
Change what we know to conform to reality. Changing our understanding to conform to new information.
Cognitive Development: Piaget
The Scheme
Organized pattern of behavior or coherent body of knowledge.
Cognitive Development: Piaget
Equilibrium
the balance between our knowledge and reality
*Disequilibrium motivates learning
Cognitive Development: Piaget
Co-Equilibrium
Co-Equilibrium—tendency to balance assimilation and accommodation.
Piaget's Four major stages of development
Sensorimotor stage (birth – 2 years)
Preoperational stage (2 – 7 years)
Concrete operational stage (7 – 11 years)
Formal operational stage (11 years on)
Sensorimotor: Basic Reflexes (0-1 month)
Functional (using a scheme when it is possessed), Recognitory (recognition of a stimulus), and Generalizing Assimilation (using schemes on various objects)
Sensorimotor: Accomodation
Adjustment of schemes to meet demands of the environment.
Sensorimotor: Primary Circular Reactions (2-4mo)
Imitating/replicating interesting bodily movement
E.g., sucking thumb
Sensorimotor: Secondary Circular Reactions
Replication of behavioral effects on the environment
E.g., kicking a mobile
Sensorimotor: Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions
Combining secondary circular reaction to produce an effect in the environment.
E.g., pushing and grasping
Sensorimotor: Tertiary Circular Reactions:
Novelty for Novelties Sake
Novelty for Novelties Sake
Using schemes to produce novel effects
Sensorimotor: Tertiary Circular Reactions:
The Object Concept
Full realization that objects continue to exist even if they can no longer see them directly.
Sensorimotor: Tertiary Circular Reactions:
Imitation
Can now imitate movements of another efficiently, even with invisible body parts (sticking out tongue)
Sensorimotor: Beginnings of Thought
Deferred Imitation
Replication of behavior observed at an earlier time.
Sensorimotor: Beginnings of Thought
Symbol Use
Use of one object to represent another (e.g., using a towel as a superman cape).
Deferred Imitation
Object Concept—fully developed.
Sensorimotor Period Accomplishments:
Decentration
Decentration
Starting to be able to thing about more than one characteristic of a thing at a time.
Sensorimotor Period Accomplishments
Decentration
Ages are Approximate
Order of Preoperational Stages is Invariant
Gradual Continuous Development within each period of development.
The infant is ACTIVE in seeking out information
Infant Socioemotional Development: Erikson’s Sociocultural Stage Theory of Personality Development

The Epigenetic Principle
Early development affects development that occurs later.
Infant Socioemotional Development: Erikson’s Sociocultural Stage Theory of Personality Development

Ritualizations and Ritualisms.
The influence of culture on personality development.
Infant Socioemotional Development: Erikson’s Sociocultural Stage Theory of Personality Development
Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (0-18 mo) (*attachment!)
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1 – 3 years)
Initiative vs. guilt (3 – 5 years)
Industry vs. inferiority (5 – 11 years)
Identity vs. role confusion (11 – 18 years)
Intimacy vs. isolation (18 – 40 years)
Generativity vs. stagnation (40 – 65 years)
Integrity vs. despair (65 years on)

*(The 8 Crisis)
John Bowlby
Attachment is demonstrated by the desire to maintain frequent interactions and proximity with attachment objects.
Felt Security
Felt Security—the notion that we are safe in out environment—out attachment figure will take care of us.
Internal Working Models of Attachment
Internal Working Models of Attachment—our understating of what relationships are like.
How infants promote attachment
Bowlby and Lorenz:
The Kewpie Doll Effect—they are just cute.
How infants promote attachment
Interactional Synchronicity
The ability to properly “take turns” in out interactions with others.
The Development of Primary Social Attachments (Schaffer & Emerson, 64)
Asocial Stage (0-6 wks)
No true attachments.
The Development of Primary Social Attachments (Schaffer & Emerson, 64)
Indiscriminate Stage (6wks to 6 mo)
Shoe attachment behavior to anybody handy.
The Development of Primary Social Attachments (Schaffer & Emerson, 64)
Stage of Specific Attachment (7-9mo)
Show attachment behaviors to a specific persons, usually Mom.
The Development of Primary Social Attachments (Schaffer & Emerson, 64)
Stage of Multiple Attachment …
Attachment figures a function of infants state (scared-Mom, ruff and tumble play—Dad, etc.)
Early Childhood: 2 to 7 Years
Cognitive development & Piaget’s Preoperational stage.
Ability for mental representation
Symbolic Play
Language
Egocentric—speak as if you know what they
are talking about without using referents.
“It” scratched your car…
Early Childhood: 2 to 7 Years
Limits of Preoperational Thought
Action-Based Thinking
Egocentrism
Understanding from their perspective only.
Centration
Still cannot think accurately about multiple dimensions of reality.
States and Transformations
Static Thought--
Irreversible Thought
Realism
Concepts
Juxtaposition
Animism
Erickson on Early Childhood Emotional Development
Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (0-18 mo)
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1 – 3 years)
Initiative vs. guilt (3 – 5 years)
Industry vs. inferiority (5 – 11 years)
Identity vs. role confusion (11 – 18 years)
Intimacy vs. isolation (18 – 40 years)
Generativity vs. stagnation (40 – 65 years)
Childhood emotional development:
LenEarly Vygotsky
We use language to think…verbal thought, and we use this to help control our own behavior.
Develops from Overt Private Speech to Covert Private Speech (AKA: Verbal Thought).
Erickson on Middle Childhood Emotional Development
Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (0-18 mo)
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1 – 3 years)
Initiative vs. guilt (3 – 5 years)
Industry vs. inferiority (5 – 11 years)
Identity vs. role confusion (11 – 18 years)
Intimacy vs. isolation (18 – 40 years)
Generativity vs. stagnation (40 – 65 years)
Integrity vs. despair (65 years on)
Early Childhood Emotional Development
Preschool Age (4-5 yrs).
Initiative vs. Guilt
Intrusion…
Virtue is “Purpose”
The “courage” to envision and pursue valued goals.
Ritualization is Authenticity
Finding the correct “role” for oneself—true to self.
Ritualism is Impersonation Becoming the role—being who they expect you to be.
Initiative vs. Guilt
Intrusion…
Virtue is “Purpose”
The “courage” to envision and pursue valued goals.
Ritualization is Authenticity
Finding the correct “role” for oneself—true to self.
Ritualism is Impersonation Becoming the role—being who they expect you to be.
Middle Childhood: 7 to 11 Years
Cognitive development
Concrete operational stage
Logical Operations Acquired
Reversibility
Conservation
Decentered
Middle Childhood: Emotional and social development
School Age
The crisis is “Industry vs. Inferiority”
Virtue is “Competence”
Ritualization is Formality
I must have “real” skills
Ritualism is Formalism
Over-concern with technique with loss of purpose and meaning.
Issues in School Age Personality Development
Self-Concept
6-7 yrs.: Concrete understanding of self
8-12 yrs: Shift to relative comparisons across domains
Start to view their self concept more in terms if stable internal characteristics (I’m truthful, helpful)
Issues in School Age Personality Development
Describing other people:
6 yrs, focus on external (concrete) features
When they do use internal or evaluative terms to describe others, they are global and not viewed as stable
Do not possess conservation of personality
At 7-8 yrs., begin to describe others in more stable psychological terms, just as they are doing with their own self-concept.
School Age Personality Development
Concepts of Relationships
Preschool: Friendships described in terms of physical characteristics, and tell you we make friends by playing together, sharing toys, and so forth.
During the school years, views of friendship become based upon Reciprocal Trust, they help and trust each other.
Generosity and helpfulness very important characteristics here.
School Age Personality Development
Cognition and Social Behavior
Their understanding of relationships shifts from external to internal, similar to what we see in conservation task performance—I.e., ability to set aside the appearance of change and focus on the underlying continuity.
Reciprocal Perspective Taking is necessary before kids can develop true friendships based on internal characteristics.
Must understand that “I know that you know that I know”, a skill that emerges at around 6 or 7yrs.
School Age Personality
Relationships in Middle Childhood
Parents
Less open attachment behavior
Affection and safe-base behaviors less frequent
Attachment is not weakened however
Rely on parents for safe-base, their presence and support, and are strongly influenced by their judgments
Problems revolve around independence issues
Performance standards
Expectations (e.g., chores)
School Age Personality
Relationships with Peers
Peer relationships are now more central than relationship with parents.
Both boys and girls have more friends at this time than at any other time of life.
Friendships are pretty stable, lasting one or more years, and this is true across this entire age range.
The vertical child-parent relationship does not disappear, but the 7-10 yr old clearly prefers the company of a peer over a parent, or even watching TV.
Initially, friendships are based on “Doing things together” (ride bikes), but between the 5th and 8th grade, this shifts dramatically, and the existence of shared attitudes becomes important in defining friendship.
School Age Personality
Relationships with Peers
Gender Differences
Gender Differences: Boys play with boys, girls with girls.
Greater gender segregation that at any other point in life.
Prefer cross-race interactions to cross-gender interactions.
Boys roam, girls stay near home
Boys friendships characterized by competition and dominance, girls by agreement, compliance, and self-disclosure.
for both boys and girls, collaboration and cooperation are the most common forms of communication, but…
Boys show more controlling speech in their interactions.
Rejecting comments, ordering, manipulating, challenging, defying, refuting, and resisting
School Age Personality
Aggression
Trend away from physical aggression and towards verbal aggression continues during schools age, with an increased emphasis on hurting the other persons feelings.
Gender Differences
Boys are clearly more aggressive than girls
Conduct Disorder much more likely in boys (6.5% for boys vs. 1.8% for girls)
Probably both biological (testosterone) and Sociocultural (men as warrior; strength, importance of alpha status, etc.)