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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
cognition
processes whereby we acquire and use knowledge.
language
flexible system of communication that uses sounds, rules, gestures, or symbols to convey information.
phonemes
basic sound units of a language that indicate changes in meaning.
morphemes
smallest meaningful units of speech, such as simple words prefixes, and suffixes.
grammar
language rule that determines how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate meaning within a language.
syntax
rules for arranging words into grammatical phrases and sentences.
semantics
criteria for assigning meaning to the morphemes in a language.
surface structure
particular words and phrases used to make up a sentence.
deep structure
underlying meaning of a sentence.
image
nonverbal mental representation of a sensory experience.
concept
mental category for classifying objects, people, or experiences.
prototype
according to Rosch, mental model containing the most typical features of a concept.
linguistic determinism
idea that patterns of thinking are determined by the specific language one speaks.
signs
sterotyped communications about an animal's current state.
telegraphic speech
early speech stae of one-and two year olds that omits words that are not essential to the meaning of the phrase.
problem representation
first step in solving a problem: defining the problem.
algorithm
step-by-step method of problem solving that guarentees a correct solution.
heuristics
rules of thumb that help in simplifying and solving problems, although they do not guarentee a correct solution.
hill climbing
heuristic problem-solving strategy in which each step moves you progressively closer to the final goal.
subgoals
intermediate, more manageable goals used in one heuristic strategy to make it easier to reach the final goal.
means-end analysis
heuristic strategy that aims to reduce the discrepancy between the current situation and the desired goal at a # of intermediate points.
working backward
heuristic strategy in wich one works backward from the desired goal to the given conditions.
mental set
tendency to perceive and approach problems in certain ways
functional fixedness
tendency to perceive only a limited number of uses for an object, this interfering with the process of problem solving.
brainstorming
problem-solving strategy in which an individual or a group produces numerous ideas and evaluates then only after all ideas have been collected.
compensatory model
rational decision-making model in which choices are systematically evaulated on various criteria
representativeness
heuristic by which a new situation is judged on a basis of its resemblance to a stereotypical model.
availability
heuristic by which a judgement or decision is based on information that is most easily retrieved from memory.
confirmation bias
tendency to look for evidence in support oa belief and to ignore evidence that would disprove a belief.
framing
perspective or phrasing of information that is used to make a decision.
hindsight bias
tendency to view outcomes as inevitable and predictable after we know the outcome.
counterfactual thinking
thinking about alternative realities and things that never happened.