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64 Cards in this Set

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what is an example of explicit memory?
It is the process of purposely trying to remember something.
Ex. While you were taking an exam, you were using explicit memory to retreive info. regarding the ques.
What is an example of implicit memory?
It is the subconcious recall or influence of past experiences.
ex. Although you don't understand why ,you are nervous when ever you wait for a bus on a specific corner. Stored subconciously is the memory of a frightening event from your childhood in which a stranger approached you at that corner and you ran away.
What is encoding? What are the three types of encoding?
The process of encodinf information so that it can be placed in sensory, long term or short term memory.

3 types of encoding are visual, acoustic, and semantic
What is an example of acoustic encoding?
represents the sounds we hear in memory.
ex. Think of your favorite song and hum it to yourself. The memory of how the melody sounds is an acousic code in longterm memory.
What is an example of visual encoding?
represents the images we see in memory.
Ex. If you think of a Christmas tree or the car you would buy if you had enough money, you will most likely see images of these things in your mind. You do so because you have visual codes for them.
what is an example of semantic encoding?
represents the meaning of experienes or factual information in memory.

Ex. If you visit Isreal, you may notice that the children can sing the top rock songs from the United States but that they do not know what the words mean. This is because they are using an acoustic code to remember a song and sing it, but they do not have a semantic code for the meaning of the words.
What is and example of storage?
It the process of maintaining or keeping a memory.
ex. Memories of your kindergaten class, your second grade teacher, or the first home you lived in are old memories. They have been stored for quite some time.
What is an example of retrival?
Is the process of transferring memory from storage to conciousness.
Ex. Whenever you are remembering anything, you are retriveing that memory from storage. Some memories are retirved so quickly that you are unaware of the process. Answer the following ques. How old are you? How many people have been pres. of the U.S. The retrival process is much easier for the first ques. that the second.
what is an example of semantic memory?
contains factual knowledge. It s contents are not associated with a specific event.
ex. knowing that the freezing point is 32 degrees fahrenheit, that red lights mean stop, and that the capitol of the U.S. is Washington D.C. You probably cannot remember the specific time or episode in which you learned these facts.
What is and example of eposodic memory?
Is the memory of a specific event that occurred while you were present.
ex. The memory of your first pony ride, a surprise birthday party you held for a friend, or your first day of college.
What is an example of procedural memory?
holds "how to" methods that usually require some motor movement.
Ex. knowing how to waltz, do a somersault, tie a tie, and drive a car are all procedural memories.
what is the levels of processing model and what are the two rehearsals?
It is a model that suggest that the most important derterminant of memory is how extensively info is encoded or processed when it is first recieved.

Remeber: maintenance rehearsal does does not require much processing and is effective for ecoding info. in short term memory. Elaborative rehersal requires a great deal of processing and is effetive for encoding in long term memory.
What is an example of maintenance rehearsal?
Involves repeating info. over and over, keeps info in short term memory.
ex. Han arrives in New York to visit his cousin Zou but loses Zou's phone number . Kan call directory assistance and the operator tell him the #. Kan repeats it over and over to himself whil he insert coins for the call.
What is an example of elaborative rehearsal?
Involves thinking about how new material is is linked or related in some way to info. already stored in the long-term memory.
ex. Instead of trying to remember a new peron's name by simply repeating it to yourself, try thinking about how the name is related to something you already know. If your are introduced to a man named Jim Crews, for ex. you might think he's as tall as my Uncle Jim, who always wears a crew cut.
What is an example of the transfer appropriate model and what is the pricinciple that goes along with it?
suggest that memory retrival will be improved if the encoding method matches the retrival method.

Ex. Samatha studied for an auto mechanics test by spending many weekends with her head underneath the hood of a car. However much to her surprise, when it came time to take the test , the prefessor handed out a multiple chice exam. Samantha, who felt that she ahd really learned the material, scored poorly. She did not do well beacsue she encoded the material by applying what she learned from the text, but the exam asked her only to retreive specific facts. Her encoding process was not for the retrevial process required by the exam.
What's an example of parallel-distributed processing?

what is the memory and generalization that go along with it?
Models of memory suggest that the connections between units of knowledge are strengthened with experiences . Tapping into any connection provides with acces to all other connections in the network.

ex. Zoe's knowledge that the term neonate means newborn is linked to her memory of seeing a premature infant to a neonatal unit. Both neonate and neonatal are connected to her memory that neo means new. When Zoe thinks of neonate, an imag of her nephew as a newborn is alos readily accessible. This background made it easier for her to understand that a neofreudian ia a person who developed a new version of Freud's theory.
What is an example of constructive memory?
William Brewer and James Treyens asked undergraduates to wait for several minutes inthe office of a graduate student. When later asked to recall everything that was in the office, most of the students mistakenly remebered that books were present, even though their were none. Apparently the general knowledge that grad. students read many books influenced the participants memory of what was in the room.
What is the information processing model?
Model oof memory has three stages, sensory memory, short term or working memory, and long term memory.
What is sensory memory?
It holds sensory information for a fraction of a second in sensory registers. If the information is attended to and recognized, perception takes place and the information can enter short term memory.
what is an example of selective attention?
determines what information is held in sensory registers. Information that is not atteneded to decays and cannnot be processed ant further.

Ex. Imagine going to New York's time square for New Year's eve . The crowd is immense. Suddenly u see someone waving a sparkler in fron of you. Even though your eyes and ears are being hit with a vaiety of stimuli, your sensory registers will retain information about the person with the sparkler because you selected that particular set of stimuli to attend to.
what is an example of short term memory and what three things does it tie alon with?
It receives info. that was pecieved in sensory memory. Informtion in short term memory is conscious but quite fragile and will be lost within seconds if not furthered processed.

Ex. If you look up a phone # and repeat it to yourself until you finish dialing, you will have kept it active in your shorterm memory. Howvere, it is likely that you will have forgotten it by the time you get off the phone, because you were using you working memory to process the new info. coming in during the conversation.
What is an example of immediate memory span?
It the largest number of items or chunks of info. that you can recall perfectly from the short term memory after one presentation of the stimuli. Most people have an immediate memory span of five to nine items.

EX. Use a telephone book to help you test youe immediate memory span. Read the first two names at the top of the page, look away, then try to recall them. Then read the next three names, look away, and try to recall them. Continue this process, using a longer list each time, until you cannot repeat the entire list of names. The number of names that you can repeat perfectly is your immediate memory span.
What is an example of chunking?
Is meaningful groupings of information that you place in short term memory. The immediate memory span of short term memory is probably between five and nine chunks of information. Each chuck contains bits of info. grouped into a single unit.
ex. During her first night as a waitress. Bridget needed all five to nine chuncks in short term memory to remember one order for one person. For ex. a drink before dinner, a main dish, a type of salad dressing, a type of potato, and weather the customer wanted ice cream, sugar, or both with coffee made up five to nine chunks of info. Aftr two years of waitressing, Bridget can easily hold in memory four to eight people's complete orders and drink orders. Each person's order had become one chunck of info.
chunks can be words, #'s, names or locations.
What is long term memory and what does it tie along with?
is the stage of memory in which the capacity to store new info. is believed to be unlimited.
What is the Brown Peterson Procedure?
is a research method that prevents rehearsal. A person is presented with a group of three letters and then counts backwards by threes from an arbitrarily selected number until a signal s given. The counting prevents the person from rehearsing the info.
What is the primacy effect?
occurs when remember words at the beginning of a list better than those in the middle of the list.
Primacy means being first. The primary effect is the remembering of the first words in list better than other words in the list.
What is the recency effect and give an example?
occurs when we remember the last few words on a list better than others on the list. The list's final items are in short term memory at the time of recall.
Ex. After hearing all her students names once . Leslie tries to recite them one by one. She remembers the names of students in the first two rows (primacy affect) and the names of the students in the last two rows (recency effect), but she has difficulty recalling the names of the students in the middle two rows.
what is the context dependent memory and an example of it?
the enviroment acts as a retrival cue. This means that it is easier to remember info. when you are in the location where you originally learned that info.

Ex. When taking his exam in his regular classroom. Leon's memory for lecture info. is improved by glancing around a the chalk board, peeling paint, and lecturer's desk. Although he doesn't realize it, he recalls the disscussion of the oppenent process theory of color vision better because he is among familiar classmates and surroundings. Unfortunately he does not remember as much of the info. he studied in his room with the stereo blaring because few of the retrieval cues associated with that learning exist in the quiet classroom enviroment where he is taking the exam.
What is an example of state dependent memory? and what does it tie along with
Your psychological state acts as a retrieval cue. When you are trying to remember, if you are in the same psychological state you were in at the time of learning, you will retrieve more info.

ex. In the evening when she studied psychology , Lydia had several cups of coffee to keep her alert. The next morning , she did not do well on the quiz. Later when drinking coffee with some friends, she was in the same state as when she studied for the quiz, and, to her amazement, she remembered some the the material that had escaped her during the quiz.

ties along with mood conguency effect
what are mood congruency effect?
People tend to remember more positive incidents from their past when they are in a positive mood at the time of recall and more negative events when they are in a negative mood. These effects are strongest when people try to recall personally meaningful episodes, because such events were most likely to be colored by their mood.
What are flash-bulb memories and what is an example of it?
Big events that have happened, something that sticks out in yor mind, memories that are vivid and long lasting and in great detail.

ex. In the sexual abuse study 62 percent of the abuse victims recalled their trauma.
ex.2 Assasination of the president
What is the method of savings and what is an example of it?
is a term introduced by Ebbinghaus to refer to the difference in the amount of time required to relearn material that has been forgotten and the amount of time it took to learn the material initially.

Ex. If ti took a subject twenty repetitions to learn a list of items but only five repetions to relearn the list a semester later, there would be a savings of 75 percent.
What is decay and an example of it?
It is a mechanism whereby information not used in long-term memory gradually fades until lost completely.

ex. Marissa learned spanish, but has not tried to speak it in years. When Marissa tries to say "Hello how was your day" to her room-mate, she cannont remember the vocabulary necessary.
What is interference?
a process through which either the storage or retrieval of info. is impaired by the presence of other info. Interferance might occur either because one piece of info. actually dispalces other info., pushing it out of memory, or because one piece of info makes storing or recalling other info. more difficult.

What is retroactive interference?
Occurs when old info. in memory is displaced with new info.
Retro means back. New information goes back and interferes with old information.

ex. studying french vocab this term might make it difficult to remember the spanish words you learned last time.
What is proactive interferance and what is an example of it?
occurs when old information in long term memory interferes with the remembering of new information.

ex.1 The french words you are learning now might make it might make it harder to learn German next term.

ex.2 If you have ever learned something incorrectly and then tried to correct ti, you may have experienced proavtive interference. Young children ho take music lessons once a week experience this. They learn an incorrect note , and at their lessons the next weel, their teacher points out the mistake. However it is very difficult to play the correct note because the old memory of the wrong note interferes with the new memory of the correct note.

Pro means forward. Old info. goes forward and and interferes with new info.
What is an example of acronymes
Every Good Boy Does Fine
EGBDF are line note on a scale
The great lake HOMES (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior)
What are mnemonics and what is one simple but powerful mnemonic.
Mnemonics are strategies for placing informatiom into organized context in order to remember it.
one powerful mnemonic is the method of loci.
ex. think about a set of familiar locations in your home for example you might imagine walking through through the fron door, around all four corners of the living room, and through each of the other rooms. Next, imagine that each item to be remembered is in one of these locations. Whenever you want to remember a list , use the same locations in the same order. Creating vivid, unusual images of how these items appear in each location.
ex. Tomatoes smashed against the front door, or bananas hanging from the bedroom ceiling might be helpful in recalling these items on a grocery list.
What is the difference between mass practice and distributed practice?
Ex. Mass practice is studying for ten hours straight, and distributed practice is studying in ten one hour blocks.
You will be much better off studying for ten one-hour blocks than cramming for one ten hour block.
What are schemas and give an example of them?
Are generalizations about categories of objects, events and people.

ex. Dana's schema for books is that they are a bound stack of paper with stories of other information wriiten on each page. When her fifth grade teacher suggests that each student read a book on the computer, Dana is confused until she sees that the same information could be presented on a computer scree. Dana has now revised her schema for books to include those presented through electronic media.
What are scripts and give an example of them?
they are mental representations of familiar sequences, usually involving activity.

ex. A a college student you have a script of how events should transpire in the classroom: students enter the classroom, sit in their seats facing the professor, and then take out their notebooks. The professor lectures while students take notes, until the bell rings and they all leave.
What are propositions and give an example?
Are the smallest units f knowledge that can stand as separate assertions. Propositions are relationships between concepts or between a concept and a property of the concept. Propositions can be true of false.

ex. Carla(concept) likes to but flowers (Concept) is a propositions that shows a relationship between two concepts. Dogs bark is a proposition that shows a realationship between a concept (dog) and a property of that concept (bark).
What are syllogisms and give an example of it?
componants of the reasoning process, are arguments made up of two propositions, called premise, and conclusions based on those premises. Syllogisms may be correct or incorrect.
ex. Here's an incorrect one: All cats are mammals (premise), and all people are mammels(premise). Therefore all cat are people (Conclusion)
What are Heuristics and give an example?
are mental short cuts or rules of thumb used to solve problems.

ex. Tou are trying to think of a four letter word for "labor" to fill in a crossword puzzle. Instead of thinking of all possible four-letter combinations (an algorithmic appoach), you think first for synonyms of labor, job, work , chores- and choose the one with four letters.
What is anchoring heuristic and give an example?
Is a biased method of estimating an events probability by adjusting a preliminary estimate in light of new information rather than by starting again from scratch. Thus, the preliminary value biases the final estimate.
ex. Jean is getting ready to move to the city. Her parents lived there ten years ago and were familiar with the area that she want s to move in now. Ten years ago it was an exceedingly dangerous neighborhood. Since that time, however, many changes have taken plac, and the area now has one of the lowest crime rates in the city. Jean's parents think that the crime rate may have improved a little, but, despite the lower crime rate, they just cannot believe that he area is all that safe.
Whar is representative hueristic and give an example of it?
Involves judging that an example belongs to a certain class of items by first focusing on the similarities between the example and the class and then determining wheather the particular example has essential features of he class. However many times people do not consider the frequency of occurrance of the class, focusing instead on what is representative or typical of the available evidence.

ex. After examining a patient Dr. White recognizes symtoms characteristic of a disease that has a base rate frequencey of 1 in 22 million people. Instead of looking for a more frequently occuring explanation of the symptoms, the doctor decides that this patient has this very rare disease. She makes this decision based on the similarity of this set of symptoms(example) to those of the rare disease (a larger class of event or items).
What is availability hueristic and give an example of it?
involves judging the probability of an event by how easily examples of the event come in mind. This leads to biasd judgements when the probability of the mentally available events does not equal the actual probability of thier occurance.

ex. A friend of yours has just moved to New York City. You cannont understand why he has moved their since the crime rate is so high. You hear from a mutual aquaintance that ypur friend is in the hospital. You assume that he is probably mugged because this is the most available info. in your mind about New York City.
In strategies of the stategies for problem solving what is means-end analysis also referred to as decomposition?
It involves continuously asking where you are in relation to your goal, then deciding on the means by which you can get one step closer to the end that you desire. In other words rather than solving the problem all at once, you identify a subgoal hat will take you toward a solution. After reaching the subgoal, you identify nother one that will get you even closer even closer to the solution,, an you repeat this step by step process until the problem is solved.
ex. students apply this appraoch to the problem of of writing a major term paper. First they write an outline of what they think the paper should cover, next they might search the library of internet, next write a rough draft of the info and so on.
In strategies for probelm solving what is working backwards?
Many problems are like a tree, the trunk is the info. you are given, the solution is a twig on one of the limbs. If you work forward by taking the "givens" of the problem and trying to find the solution, it will be easy to branch of in the wrong dirction.
ex. the problem of planning to climb to the summit of mount everest. The best strategy is to figure out first what equipment and supplies are needed at the highest camp on the night before the summit attempt, and then how many people are neede to stock that camp the day before, then how many people are needed to supply those who must stock the camp and soon until the plan is estalished. Its hard to imagine that the first step in solving a problem could be to assume that you already solved it.
What are analogies in strategies for problem solving?
Similarites between today's problem and others you have encountered before.

Ex a supervisor may find that a seemingly hopeless problem between co-workers may be resolved by the same compromise that worked during a recent family squabble. To take advantage of analogies we must first recognize the similarites between current and previous problems and then recall the solutions that worked before.
In obstacles to problem solving, what are mental set and an example?
Occurs when knowing the solution to an old problem interferes with recognizing a solution to a new problem.
ex. The last time his CD player door wouldn't open, Del tapped the front of it and it popped open. This time when it won't open, Del does the same thing not noticing that the power isn't even on.
In obstacles to problem solving what is Functional fixedness and give an example of it?
Occures when a person fails to use a familiar object in a novel way in order to solve a problem.

ex. Lisa is very creative in her use of the objects in her enviroment. One day she dropped a fork down the drain of her Kitchen sink. She took a small refrigerater magnet and tied it to a chopstick. She then put the chopstick down the drain, let the fork attach itself to the magnet, and carefully pulled the fork out of the drain. If Lisa ha viewed the magnet as being capable only of hold material against the refrigerater, and the chopstick as being useful only for eating chinese food, she would have experienced functional fixedness.
What is confirmation bias and ignoring negative evidence?
Is a form of the anchoring hueristic. It involves the reluctnace to abandon an initial hypothesis and a tendency to ignore information inconsistant with that bias.

ignoring negative evidence:
People have a difficult time using the absence of evidence to help eliminate hypothesis for consideration. In the "trpped kitten" case, whe the meowing stopped for several days after the stove was reconnected, rescuers assumed that the animal was frightened into silence. They ignored the possibility that their hypothesis was incorrect.
What is utility and give an example?
the utilty of an attribute is its subjunctive, personal values.

ex. Jaun perfers large classes because he likes the stimulation of hearing many opposing view points. In choosing classes, Jaun decides whether the positive utility of the preferred class size is greater than the negative utility of the inconvienient meeting time
What is an example of conformity?
Jill wears a suit to the office because all her co-workers wear suits.
occurs when people change their behavior or beliefs as a result of real or imagined unspoken group pressure.
What is an example of compliance?
Carletta, Cecila, and Carmen are sisters. Their mother tells them that if they want to go swimming, they must all clean their rooms. Carletta and Cecila hurry to straighten their rooms, but Carmen at first refuses to touch the mess in her bedroom. After Carletta and Cecila repeatedly beg ask Carmen to help, Carmen finally complies and cleans her room.
Occurs when people adjust their behavior because of the directly expressed wishes of an individual or a group.
What is an example of obediance?
Carlotta's mother tells her that she must clean her room, and Carlotta obeys.
Occurs when people comply with a demand, rather than a request, because they think they must or should do so.
What did Asch's experiment try to figure out?
Why did so many people in his experiment and others like it, give incorrect responses when they were capable of near perfect performance.
What is public conformity that Asch came up with?
giving an answer they did not believe simply because it was the socially desirable thing to do.
What is private acceptance that Asch came up with?
Participants used other people's respnses as legitimate evidance about reality, were convinced that their own perceptions were wrong,and actually changed their minds.
When do people conform?
People do not always comform to social influence. In the original Asch studies, nearly 30% of the participants did not go along with the research assistants obviously erroneous judgements. Countless experiments have probed the question of what combinations of people and circumstances do and do not lead to conformity.
What is the foot-in-the door technique?
works by gettin a person to agree to a small request and then gradually presenting larger ones?
What is the door-in-the-face procedure?
This strategy begins with a request for a favor that is likely to be denied. The person making the request then concedes that asking for the initial favor was excessive and substitutes a lesser alternative.
What is the low-ball approach?
The first step in this strategy is to obtain a person's oral commitment to do something, such as to purchase a car at a certain price. Once this commitment is made, the cost of fulfilling it is increased, often because of an error in computing the cars price.