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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Learning Defined
Any relative permanent change in behavior that occurs because of experience
a kind of learning that involves associations between environmental stimuli and responses
Classical Conditioning
-The organism learns to associate two stimuli together
-One produces a response that originally was only produced by the other
-Classic example of dog/bell and salivation
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
Elicits the unconditional response (food)
Unconditioned Response (UR)
Response which is automatically produced (salivate)
Conditional Stimulus (CS)
Originally neutral stimulus that elicits a behavior after being paired with a US (bell)
Conditioned Response (CR)
Response elicited by the conditioned stimulus (salivate to bell)
repeat the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus over time and the conditioned response will disappear
Spontaneous Recovery
after a response has been extinguished it may spontaneously reappear after the passage of time with exposure to the conditioned stimulus
Higher Order Conditioning
pairing a neutral stimulus with the conditioned stimulus will create another conditioned stimulus, although a weaker conditioned response. This process is more likely to show extinction. (Food with bell, bell with light)
Stimulus generalization
After a stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus for some response, other, similar stimuli may produce the same reaction. [Cat running to an electric drill, thinking it’s the can opener that usually provides food]
Stimulus discrimination
one learns to realize the differences between similar stimuli. [Fire alarm compared with alarm clock; similar stimuli yet you react differently]
Paired association: ugly person with shampoo and becoming pretty; “shampoo makes you pretty.”
Garcia effect
one really bad experience can cause an intense learning situation you remember for your whole life. Schreier got really sick from red wine when she was a kid, and she still thinks it’s gross even though that experience got no reinforcement over the years.
Operant Conditioning/Instrumental Learning
Behavior is dependent on its consequences
Law of Effect
a satisfying result strengthens a behavior.
B.F. Skinner
all behavior is explained by looking outside the individual. People (and animals) tend to repeat behaviors which have positive consequences; decrease behaviors which have negative consequences.
Neutral Consequence
Not more or less likely to see behavior patterns change
anything which will make a response more likely to occur
anything which will make a response less likely to occur
Primary reinforcers
satisfy biological needs like food, water and sex
Secondary reinforcers
satisfy through association with primary reinforcers: money, praise, grades
are inherently unpleasant and decrease the likelihood of a response
Positive punishment
something unpleasant occurs (spanked, mouth washed out with soap)
Negative punishment
something pleasant is removed (no TV, no dessert)
Continuous Learning schedules
Reward/punishment occurs each time the behavior occurs
Intermittent/Partial Learning schedules
Reward/punishment occurs when a response occurs only some of the time
Ratio schedules
deliver reinforcements after a certain fixed number of responses
Fixed ratio schedules
reinforcement after a fixed number of responses (every 4x)
Variable ratio schedules
reinforcement after some average number of responses, but the number changes (on average 7)
Interval schedules
deliver reinforcement after a certain amount of time has passed and the desired behavior has occurred
Fixed interval
reinforcement occurs only after a fixed amount of time has passed since the past reinforcer (5 minutes)
Variable interval
Reinforcement occurs only if a variable amount of time has passed since the previous reinforcer (on average 5 minutes, could be 3 or 7 minutes)
A technique used which reinforces behavioral tendencies in a desired direction. Uses successive approximation—reinforcing responses that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior
Observational Learning
believe there is higher level cognitive process to how we learn, impacts attitudes, beliefs and expectations (Children learn and then imitate behaviors, television violence.) Pro social behavior can also be learned through modeling. Lessons from Lassie Study
Latent Learning
We develop cognitive schemas or maps which are used only when the situation warrants (Tolman and his rats).