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67 Cards in this Set

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how do drives and incentives complement one another
a strong drive and enhance attactiveness, incentive. i.e. if hungry, more incentive to find sth. to eat
homeostasis
maintaining normal body function

a regulatory and non regulatory drive
central state theory of drives
different drives correspond to diff. neural activity in diff. part of brain. the central drive system. must have a output and input. must direct perceptual mechanisms toward stimuli related to goal. also receive and integrage info
hypothalamus
good place for a central drive
1) anatomicly, located in centre, above brainstem, connected with higher areas
2) lots of cappillaries, most strongly affected by hormones
3) connected with the pituatary gland, control release of hormones
4) direct connection with nerves that come from internal organs and autonomic motor output
lesions
localized dmaage of brain, produced by:
1) electrically---- destroy neurons
2) chemically
3) stimulation, only excite neuron, not destroy
4) genetic manipulation producing " knockout" animals
hunger
a regulatory drive--- first thought to be controlled by lateral hypothalamus. then realized lesions there only caused loss of incentives to differnt drives, depending which incentive was awaliable.
found that neurons most critical for producing results were ones with cell bodies not in lateral , only their axons connecting brain stem and basal ganglia
lateral hypothalamus
- using chemical means, destroying neurons in hypothalamus reduced appetite
- the paraventricular area promotes eating with release of neuropeptide Y, acts also on lateral
- then monkeys were hungry, when they saw food, or signs or it, burst of AP in lateral
-sensitization occurs in certain neurons in lateral so they respond to incentives
ventriomedial hypothalamus
belived to be the satietity. it controls the peripheral autonomic nervese. Alters digestive process. changes metabolism so that food molecules convert to fat instead of energy, making animal eat more.
stimuli that act on brain to increase/ decrease hunger
1) small intesting and stomach. release CCK
- pressure on stomach wall, trigger activity on vagus nerve stop eating
2) food molecules in blood--> liver and brain sensitive to blood glucose level
3) amt fat in body--> leptin, secreted inhibit neuropeptide Y
4) signals from enviorment, such as time causes release of digestive enzymes and neuropeptide Y
genes and enviorment
in westernm culture, it is genes that influence obesity, size.
In other cultures, ie indians of mexixo and arizona, same relation, but different eating habits casue obesity
problems with dieting
fat cells don't dissappear, they only shrink
nonregulatory drive
i.e. sex
puberty
in males--- testortrone
in females--- estrogen and progestrone
both sex have DHEA... sexual attraction. Passes into brain, altering activity esp. hypothalamus
sex drive in males can be resotred by injecting testortrone in medial preoptic area
for females, estrogen in ventriomedial area
sex drive
in humans, decline in sex drive due to DHEA
why do women have active sex drive throughout year
b/c male couldn't guard female continuously, female can engage in clandestine sex with another male that has better genes
brain differntiating effects of early presence or absence or testortrone
if testortrone present. devlop testes. of no testostrone, ovaries.
- stress in pregnent females cause less testostrone to be produced. in response to stress mother secretes hormone that prevents testostrone to be produced, a more masculine brain
brain development/ sexual preferences
1-5 % pop are homosexual
don't know why, except it is casued by genes.
in identical twins 50-50 that both are homosexual
reward pathways
the medial forebrain bundle, neurons in this tract secrete NT dopamine, self stimulation. for drugged rats, if their dopamine transmitter system is altered to not respond to drugs, stop self stimulation
leptin
reduces the rewarding effect of stimulation .
electroencephalogram
EEG, moniters brain pattens. takes average or neurons firing at each other
waves
Alphs waves--- awake, relaxed , not thinking.
Beta waves--- fast, irregular, waves when thinking, excited
Delta waves--- stage 4 sleep, slow, large waves
REM waves--- looks like alert wakefulness, fast
restoration theory
resotre body after day. muscles relax, metabolic activity and brain activity down.
predict after hard day, rest more. tested on racers, after race, slept more for 3 days
- prolonged sleep deprivation caused breakdown of various body tissues and death occured
preservation and protection theory
when we are of no use, might as well rest to prevent doing dangerous things.
in large grazing animals, needs lots of food, can't hide, sleep little.
in animals with no predetors, sleep alot . need little time to find food. more time digesting.
-humans sleep avg. 8 hours b/c little use at night when we can't see in dark.
circadian rhythms
nature's natural biological clock. cyclic changes. during sleep deprivation, easier to be awake during day than night
- controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, if damaged, animal will sleep and awake at random times
nonsomniacs vs. insomniacs
sleep very little , yet is is enough

can't sleep due to stress.
true dreams vs. sleep thought
REM - true dream
- dream involves complex, bizarre story
- vivid

sleep thought
- happens during other stages of slow wave sleep
- often about problems of the day
- not complex
why dream
- a side effect of neural excercise
- memory consodilation
neural excercise
- to help preserve circuits, and synapse that degenrate if not used
- dream a side effect
- explains why fetus spend some much time in REM. To excercise material learnt adn brain developing
- in fetus, kick during REM b.c motor inhibition not formed yet
memory consodilation
-strengthen newly formed connections of brain
- found in mice, after maze, then REM, did much better
- effect only occurs for new task
-found those deprived of slow wave, performed the perceptual task better right after sleep
- thsoe deprived of REM show no improvement in task
- steudents who had practived a particular skill involving eye hand coordination ehibited, during REM, extra neural activity in some of same visual and otor caras of brain as during training session
suprachiasmatic nucleus
rhythm generating neurons which increase and decrease rate of action potentials over cyle of 24 hours
pineal gland
also moniters daily rhythm. It is an endocrine gland, secretes hormone melatonin. Contolled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus through connections sympathetic control venters in hypothalamus that act on a peripheral sympathetic nerve that runs to pineal gland. pineal gland produces lots on menatonin during night. none during day
melatonin
sleepiness in humans.
promote sleep
anterior portion of hypothalamus, stimulation alert--> sleep
recives neural connection from suprachiamsmatic nucleuls...regulate 24 hours.
neural centers for REM, slow wave
regulated by two interconected neurons in pons. one generate increase brain activity
2- inhibit motor neurons, producing extreme loss of muscle tension
arousal response
patttern of measurable physiological changes that helps with " fight or flight"
1) skeletal muscle tense, blood diverted to muscle
2) heart rate, BP breathing rate increase. sugar and fat molecules released into blood from storage deposits
3) blood clots easier, endorphins are released
4) alerting mechanism strongly activated. congnitive processes narrowly focused
yerkes- dodson law
when task was easy, best with high arousal.
when task was hard, best with lower arousal.
sleep control mechanism
sleep control center
1) neurons in anterior hypothalmus receive input from suprachiasmatic nucleus. activation of neuron induce sleep
2) two set of neurons in pons. one shift slow wave to REM, other inhibits motor activity
sleep control- circadian rhythm
1) light entering eye influence suprachiasmatic nucleus via optic nerve
2) indirect connection from suprachiasmatic nucleus to pineal gland
3) under control of nucleus, pinetal gland release melatonin
james peripheral feeback theory
arousal occus immediately in response to perception of certain enviormental events and that emotions are one's sense of arousal.

stimulus--> perception---> bodily arousal---> emotion
schacter's theory
feeling of emotion depends not only on sensory feeback to body response, also on perception and thoughts concerning enviormental event that evoke body response
common sense theory
stimulus--> perception---> emotion---> bodily arousal
facial feeback theroy
induced facial expression can alter slef reports of emotiona nd also produce physiological responses through body consistent with induced expression. sensory feeback from face influences both feeling and bodily state associated with the emotion
amygdala
portion of limbinc system
- removal of amygdala with poertions of temporal lobe bilaterally --> changes in behavior, psychic blindness, see object and move it, but seemed indiffent to it. no longer responded fearfully to object that had previously frightened them. no discrimination b/n food, etc.
amygdala= fear venter.
frontal lobes
- influences ppl consicious emotional feeling and ability to act in deliberate , planned ways based on feeling. cutting it out, left ppl unable to plan and organize lives effectively
- left frontal lobe- positive emotions
right frontal lone- negative emotions
how is concept of hemoestasis related to that of drive
the maintain bodily homeostasis, drive tells you of bodily need. Boy who needed salt, body craved it as a drive
diff. b/n regulatory and non regulatory
regulatory keeps body in homeostasis
nonregulatory is just for pleasure. i.e.sex. " need" not useful b/c we don't need it to survive
in theroy, what characteristic must set of neurons have to function as central drive system.
1) input, must receive and intergrage signals that can raise or lower drive state
2) output- central drive system must act on neural processes that would involve in carrying out motivated behavior
what is evidence that hunger is maintained by certain slow neurotransmitter in hypothalamus
neuropeptide Y is slow NT . It stimulates appetite, working for long periods of time
how have recording from neurons in hypothalamus about interactionb/n drive and incentive
monkeys, when hungry, and see food, burst of action potentials in lateral hypothalamus.Once it was full, AP stopped.
why do animals with lesions in ventromedial hypothalamus overeat and become obese
the ventriomedial contains neurons that regulate activity of perphipheral autonomic sytstem. changes body metabolism, converts everything to fat, not as useful energy, signal brain to eat more
what roles are played by sex hormones
testostrone, estrogen and DHEA. testostron causes testes. estrogen casue ovaries. DHEA causes sexual attraction
what is evidence taht testosterone needed to maintain males' sex drive, direct action to hypothalamus
if there is no testostrone, male sex drive gone. males if inject testostrone to the medial preoptic arean of hypothalamus, sex drive will be there again
ovarian hormones act directly on brain
when estrogen is injected to the ventriomedial area of hypothalamus, causes sex drive in females
how has research on female musk shrews contributed to theory of evolution in female mammels and humans
humans, males can't always gurad over them, allow females to mate with other stronger males.
what are some effects of presence or absence of testrostrone
if there is testostrone, fetus develops testes and penis and becomes male. Male sex drive developed, inhibiting the female sex drive
what is a good NT for stimulation, relate with drugs
NT dopamine, if taking drugs. stimulation and can't stop taking drugs. when the dopamine receptors blocked, and effect of dopamine not felt. then animal no longer self stimulates itself
EEG
as you fall deeper to sleep, EEG shows larger,slower waves. REM, and Beta waves look the same. rapid, like stimulation. Delta waves are slow and larged. Alpha waves are in between, when person is relazed.
WHat are the two sleep theories
the restoration theroy--- to restore body
preservation and protectiontheory--- sleep when of no use. to prevent harm to yourself
why do we dream
1) as a side effect of brain excercising neural pathways
2) sleep as a memory consolidation, strenthening of synapse of days work
what is known about roles of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in controlling daily rhythms, the pineal gland and melatonin in inducing sleep...
under control of nuclue, the pineal gland secretes melatonin at night, causing sleepiness. two sets of neurons in pons. one induces REM, the other inhibits motor function.
the anterior hypothalamus--- receives neural connection of nucleus, part of hyow nucleus regualtes 24 hr sleep wake rhythm
what task is good / bad with high arousal
good with simple and physical task. bad with taskt that are complex.
James peripheral feedback thery, how does it depend on his specific definition of emotion
arousal occurs after perception of something, then emotion occurs as a response to arousal of " fear. anger, etc'
- referring emotion to one's conscious experience of a particular internal state, not of one's immediate assesment of stimulus.
how does schacter's theory differ from james
feeling of an emotion depends on sensory feedback of body response and one's perception and thoughts concerning enviormental effect. i.e. bodily arousal already high from drinking coffee, arousal contribute to emotional intensity, leading to perceive bear as more dangerous as it is
how did schacter support his theory
injected ppl with epinephrine or placebo. wxpoosed them to various emotion eliciting conditions. found epinephrine itself didn't produce a emotion, but when combined with emotion inducing condition, found ppl with epinephrine intensity was heightened. high physiological arousal increases emotion only when ppl believe that arousal caused by external situation
evidence that molding face to emotional expression affect mood
when subject told to " smike" for a time, afterward, found the mood was lighter. A inducded emotionactually caused change in body. i.e. anger, caused increased BP
evidence the amygdala critical in evaluating and genrating emotional reactions
found the animals with leisons there showed no fear of anything, didn't care.
evidence frontal lobes involeved in conscious feeling of emotion
found ppl with left leison--- declined in having positive emotions
right leision- less negative emotions