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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
encoding
the process of putting information into a form that the memory system can accept and use
acoustic codes
metal represntations of stimuli as sounds
visual codes
mental representations of stimuli as pictures
semantic codes
mental representations of experiences by their general meaning
storage
the process of maintaing information in the memory system over time
retrieval
the process of recalling information stored in memory
episodic memory
a person's recall of a specific event that happened while the person was present
semantic memory
a type of memory containing generalized knowledge of the world
procedural memory
a type of memory containing information about how to do things
explicit memory
the process through which people deliberitly try to remeber something
implicit memory
the unintentional recollection and influence of prior experiences
levels of processing model
a model of memory suggesting that differences in how well something is remebered reflect the degree or depth of mental processing
maintenance rehersal
a memorizing method that involves repeating information over and over to keep it in memory
elaborative rehersal
a memorization method that involves repeating information over and over to keep it in memeory
transfer -appropriate processing model
a model suggesting that memory depends on how the encoding process mathes up with what is later retrieved
parallel distributed processing models (PDP)
models of memory suggesting that new experiences provide specific information, but also become part of, and alter, a whole network of associations in a persons knowledge base
information processing model
a model suggesting that information must pass through sensory memory short term memeory and long term memory in order to firmly be embedded in memory
sensory memory
a type of memory that is very brief but lasts long enough to connect one impression to the next
sensory registers
memory systems that briefly hold incoming information
selective attention
the process of focusing mental resources on only one part of the stimulus field
short term memory (STM)
a stage of memory in which information mormallt lasts less than twenty seconds; a component of working memeory
working memory
the part of the memory system that mentally works with or manipulates information bieng held in short term memory
immediate memory span
the maximum number of items a person can recall perfectly after one presentation of the items
chunks
stimuli that are percieved as units or meaningful groupings of information
brown-peterson procedure
a method for determining how long unrehearsed information remains in short term memory
long-term memory
the stage of memory for which the capacity to store new information is belived to be lunimited
primary effect
a phenomonenon wherby recall for the first two or three itmes in a list is particulary good
recency effect
a phenomenon wherby recall for the last few items in a list is particuallry good
retrieval cues
stimuli that sllow or help people to recall information
encoding specificity principle
a principle stating that the ability of a cue to aid retrieval depends on wheter it taps into information that was originally encoded
context- dependent memories
memories that are helped or hindered by simularities or differences between the contexts in which they are learned and recalled
state- dependent memory
memory that is helped or hindered by simularities or differences in a perons internal state during learing verses recall
spreading activation
in semantic network theories of memory a principle that explains how information is retrieved
schemas
mental representations of categoreis of objects, places, events and people
method of savings
a method for measuring forgetting
decay
the gradual disapperance of information from the memory
interference
the process through which storage or retrieval of information is imparied by the precense of other informtaion
retoactive interference
- a cuase of forgetting wherby new information placed in memory interferes with the ability to recall information already in memory
proactive interference
a cause of forgetting wheryby previously learned information interferes witht he ability to remeber new information
anterograde amnesia
a loss of memory for events that occur after a brain injury
retrograde amnesia
a loss of memory for events that occured prior to a brain injury
mnemonics
strategies for organizing information in order to remeber it