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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The intensity at which a given individual can detect a sensory stimulus 50% of the time; a low threshold indicates the ability to detect fain stimuli
absolute sensory threshold
An adjustment of the thickness of teh lens to focus on objects at different distances
accommodation of the lens
Visual cues that depend on the action of both eyes
binocular cues
The alteration between seeing the pattern in the left retina and the pattern in the right retina
blind spot
An increase or decrease in an object's apparent brightness because of the effects of objects around it
brightness contrast
A chemical that stimulates the release of substance P
A disorder in which the lens of the eye becomes cloudy
In Gestalt psychology the tendency to imagine the rest of an incomplete, familiar figure
The snail-shaped, fluid-filled structure that contains the receptors for hearing
The tendency of an object to appear nearly the same color under a variety of lighting conditions
color constancy
The tendency to perceive objects as being part of the same group if they change or move in similar ways at the same time
common fate
A hearing loss that results when the bones connected to the eardrum fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea
conduction deafness
The type of visual receptor that is adapted for color vision, daytime vision, and detailed vision
In Gestalt psychology the tendency to fill in the gaps in an interrupted line
The degree to which the eyes turn in to focus on a close object
A rigid, transparent structure on the surface of the eyeball
The skin ssenses, including pressure of the skin, warmth, cold, pain, vibration, movement across the skin, and stretch of the skin
cutaneous senses
A gradual improvement in the ability to see in dim light
dark adaptation
The perception of distance, which enables us to experience the world in three dimensions
depth perception
The continuum of all the frequencies of radiated energy
electromagnetic spectrum
Any of the neurotransmitters that decrease the perception of pain
A neuron in the visual system of the brain that responds to the presence of a certain simple feature, such as a horizontal line
feature detector
An object and its background
figure and ground
The central part of the retina that has a greatre density of receptors, especially cones, than any other part of the retina
The identificaiton of pitch by the frequency of action potentials in neurons along the basilar membrane of the cochlea, synchronized with the frequency of sound waves
frequency principle
Neurons in the eye that receive input, from bipolar cells, which in turn receive ther input from the visual receptors
ganglion cells
The proposal tht pain messages must pass through a gate, probably in the spinal cord, that can block these messages
gate theory
An approach to psychology that seeks to explain how we perceive overall patterns
Gestalt psychology
A condition characterized by increased pressure within the eyeball, resulting in damage to the optic nerve and therefore a loss of vision
In Gestalt psychology the tendency to perceive simple, symmetrical figures
good figure
A unit of frequency representing one cycle (vibration) per second
hertz (Hz)
Farsightedness; the inability to focus on nearby objects
A perception that an object is moving and the background is tationary when in fact the object is stationary and the background is moving
induced movement
The colored structure on the surface of the eye, surrounding the pupil
A flexible structure that can vary its thickness to enable the eye to focus on objects at different distances
A perception thta depends on the amplitude of a sound wave
Visual cues that are just as effective with one eye as with both
monocular cues
The apparent difference between the size of the moon at the horizon and its size when viewed higher in the sky
moon illusion
The apparently swift motion of objects close to a moving observer and the appaarently slow motion of objects farther away
motion parallax
Nearsightedness; the inability to focus on distant objects
A color that a person sees after staring at its opposite color for a while
negative afterimage
A hearing loss that results from damage to the cochlea, the hair cells, or auditory nerve
nerve deafness
The sense of smell; the detection of chemicals in contact with the membrances inside the nose
The theory that we perceive color in terms of a system of paired opposites: red versus gree, yellow versus blue, and white versus black
opponent-process theory
A set of axons that extend from the panglion cells of the eye to the thalamus and several other areas of the brain
optic nerve
A misinterpretation of a visual stimulus as being larger or smaller, or straighter or more curved, than it really is
optical illusion
the interpretation of sensory information
A contiuing sensation of an amputated body part
phantom limb
an odorous chemical, released by an animal, that changes how other members of the species respond to that animal socially
The illusion of movement created when two or more stationary lights separated by a short disease flash on and off at regular intervals
phi effect
A perception closely related to the frequency of sound waves
The identification of pitch by determining which auditory neurons, coming from which part of the basilar membrane, are most active
place principle
A decreased flexibility of the lens and therefore the inability to focus on nearby objects
In Gestalt psychology the tendency to perceive objects that are close together as belonging to a group
The adjustable opening in the eye throug which light enters
A specialized cell that converts environmental energies into signals for the nervous system
A layer of visual receptors convering the back surface of the eyeball
The difference in the apparent position of an object as seen by the left and right retinas
retinal disparity
The theory that color perception results from the cerebral cortex's comparison of various retinal patterns
retinex theory
A stimulus that you can perceive in more than one way
reversible figure
The type of visual receptor that is adapted for vision in dim light
The conversion of energy from the envrionment into a pattern of response by the nervous system
The sudy of people's tendencies to make hits, correct rejections, misses, and false alarms
signal-detection theory
In Gestalt psychology the tendency to perceive objects that resemble each other as belonging to a group
Vibrations of the air or of another medium
sound waves
Energy in the environment that affects what we do
An illusion of movement created by a rapid succession of stationary images
stroboscopic movement
The ability of a stimulus to influence our behavior even when it is presented so faintly or briefly or along with such strong distracters that we do not perceive it consciously
subliminal perception
A neurotransmitter responsible for much of transmision of pain information in the nervous system
substance P
The sensory system that responds to chemicals on the tongue
The site of the taste receptors, located in one of the folds on the surface of the tongue
taste bud
The theory that color vision depends on the relative rate of response of three types of cones
trichromatic theory (or Young-Helmholtz theory)
A speicalized sense that detects the direction of tilt and amount of acceleration of the head and the position of the head with respect to gravity
vestibular sense
The tendency to perceive objects as unchanging in shape, size, and color, despite variations in what actually reaches the retina
visual constancy
The identification of pitch by groups of hair cells responding to each vibration by producting an action potential
volley principle
A phenomenon in which prolonged staring at a waterfall and then looking at nearby cliffs causes those cliffs to appear to flow upward
waterfall illusion