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32 Cards in this Set

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consciousness
awareness of various processes, such as sleeping, dreaming, concentrating, and making decisions.
waking consciousness
mental state that encompasses the thoughts, feelings, and perceptions that occur when we are awake and reasonably alert.
altered state of consciousness
mental state that differs noticeably from normal waking consciousness.
daydream
apparently effortless shifts in attention away from the here and now into a private world of make believe.
ciradian rhythm
regular biological rhythm with approximately 24 hr period.
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
Cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus that receives input from the retina regarding light and dark cycles and is involved in regulating the biological clock.
REM (paradoxical) Sleep
sleep stage characterized by rapid eye movement and increased dreaming.
NON_REM (NREM) Sleep
Non-rapid- eye movement stages of sleep that alternate stages of sleep that alternate with REM stages during the sleep cycle.
Night Terrors
Frightening, often terrifying dreams that occur during NREM sleep from which a person is difficult to awaken and doesn't remember the content.
Nightmares
Frightening dreams that occur during REM sleep and are remembered.
Insomnia
Sleep disorder characterized by difficulty in falling asleep or remaining alseep throughout the night.
apnea
sleep disorder characterized by breathing difficulty during the night and feelings of exhaustion during the day.
narcolepsy
hereditory sleep disorder characterized by sudden nodding off during the day and sudden loss of muscle tone following moments of emotional excitement.
dreams
vivid visual and auditory experiences that occur primarily during REM periods of sleep.
psychoactive drugs
Chemical substances that change moods and perceptions
sustance abuse
Pattern of drug use that diminishes the ability to fulfill responsibilities at home or at work or school that result in repeated use of a drug in dangerous situations, or that leads to legal difficulties related to drug abuse.
substance dependence
pattern of compulsive drug taking that results in tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, o other specific symptoms for at least a year.
tolerance
phenomenon whereaby higher doses of a drug are required to produce its original effects or to prevent withdrawal symptoms.
withdrawal symptoms
unpleasant physical or psychological effects that follow the discontinuance of a dependence producing substance.
depressants
chemicals that slow down behavior or cognitive processes.
alcohol
depressant that is the intoxicating ingredient in whiskey, beer, wine, and otehr fermented or distilled liquors.
barbiturates
potentially deadly depressants, first used for their sedative and anticonvulsant properties, now used only to treat such conditions as epilepsy and arthritis.
opiates
drugs such as opium and heroin, derived from the opium poppy, that dull the senses and induce feelings of euphoria, well-being, and relaxation. Synthetic drugs resembling opium derivatives are also classified as opiates.
stimulants
drugs, including amphetamines and cocaine, that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and produce feelings of optimism and boundless energy.
amphetamines
stimulant drugs that initially produce rushes of euphoria often followed by sudden crashes and sometimes severe depression.
cocaine
drug derived from the cocoa plant that while producing a sense of euphoria by stimulating the smpathetic nervous system, also leads to anxiety, depression, and addictive cravings.
hallucingoens
any of the # of drugs such as LSD and mescaline that distort visual and auditory perception.
lysergic and diethylamide (LSD)
Hallucinogenic or psychedelic drug that produces hallucinations and delusions similar to those occuring in a psychotic state.
marijuana
mild hallucinogen that produces high often characterized by feelings of euphoria, sense of wellbeing, and swings in mood from gaiety to relaxation, may also cause feelings by anxiety and paranoia.
placebo
chemically inactive substance used for comparison with active drugs in experiments on the effects of drugs.
meditation
any of the various methods of concentration, reflection, or focusing of thoughts undertaken to suppress the activity of the sympathetic nervous system.
hypnosis
trancelike state in which a person responds readily to suggestions.