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44 Cards in this Set

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An excitation that travels along an axon at a constant strngth, no matter how far it must travel
action potential
A condition marked by impulsive behavior and short attention span
attention deficit disorder (ADD)
A system of neurons that controls the internal organs such as the heart
autonomic nervous system
A single, long, thin, straight fiber that transmits information from a neuron to other neurons or to muscle cells
axon
The question of how seperate brain areas combine forces to produce a unified perception of a single object
binding problem
The part of the neuron that contains the nucleus of the cell
cell body
The brain and the spinal cord
central nervous system
(Latin for "little brain") a hindbrain structure that is active in the control of movement, especially for complex, rapid motor skills and behaviors that require precise timing
cerebellum
The outer surface of the forebrain
cerebral cortex
A large set of axons connecting the left and right hemispheres of the cerbral cortex and thus enabling the two hemispheres to communicate with each other
corpus callosum
One of the widely branching structures of a neuron that receive transmissions from other neurons
dendrite
A neurotransmitter that promotes activity levels and facilitates movement
dopamine
A device that uses electrodes on the scalp to record rapid changes in brain control
electroencephalograph (EEG)
A set of glands tha produce hormones and release them into the bloodstream
endocrine system
A condition that characterized by abnormal rhythmic activity of brain neurons
epilepsy
A portion of each cerebral hemisphere at the anterior pole, with sections that control movement and certain aspects of memory
frontal lobe
A technique that uses magnetic detectors outside the head to measure the amounts of hemoglobin, with and without oxygen, in different parts of the brain and thereby provides an indication of current activity levels in various brain areas
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
A cell of the nervous system that insulates neurons, removes waste materials (e.g., dead cells)
glia
The left or right half of the brain; each hemisphere is responsible for sensation and motor control on the opposite side of the body
hemisphere
A chemical released by glands and conveyed by the blood to other parts of the body, where it alters activity
hormone
A device that records rapd magnetic changes during brain activity
magnetoencephalograph (MEG)
A structure that is located in the hindbrain and is an elaboration of the spinal cord; controls many muscles in the head and several lifepreserving funtions, such as breathing
medulla
A cell of the nervous system that receives information and transmits it to other cells by conducting electrochemical impulses
neuron
A chemical that is stored in the terminal of an axon and that, when released, activates receptors of other neurons
neurotransmitter
The rear portion of each cerebral hemisphere, critical for vision
occipital lobe
A portion of each cerebral hemisphere; the main receiving area for the sense of touch and for the awareness of one's own body and perception of location of the body in space
parietal lobe
A condition that affects about 1% of people over the age of 50; the main symptoms are difficulty in initiating voluntary movement, slowness of movement, tremors, rigidity, and depressed mood
Parkinson's disease
The bundles of axons that convey messages between the spinal cord and the rest of the body
peripheral nervous system
A structure adjacent to the medulla that receives sensory input from the head and controls many muscles in the head
pons
A technique that provides a high-resolution image of brain activity by recording radioactivity emitted from injected chemicals
positron-emission tomography (PET)
A neuron on the receiving end of a synapse
postsynaptic neuron
An area in the anterior portion of the frontal lobes, critical for planning movements and for certain aspects of memory
prefontal cortex
A strip in the posterior (rear) part of the frontal cortex that controls fine movements, such as hand and finger movements
primary motor cortex
A strip in the anterior (forward) part of the parietal lobe that receives most touch sensations and other informaiton about the body
primary somatosensory cortex
A rapid, automatic response to a stimulus
reflex
Electrical polarization that ordinarily occurs across the membrane of an axon that is not undergoing an action potential
resting potential
Peripheral nerves that communicate with the skin and muscles
somatic nervous system
That part of the central nervous system that communicates with sensory neurons and motor neurons below the level of the head
spinal cord
Undifferentiated cells
stem cells
The specialized junction between one neuron and another; at this point one neuron releases a neurotransmitter, which either excites or inhibits the next neuron
synapse
A portion of each cerebral hemisphere; the main processing area for hearing complex aspects of vision, and certain aspects of emotional behavior
temporal lobe
A bulge at the end of an axon from which the axon releases a chemical called a neurotransmitter
terminal bouton (or button)
A forebrain area that relays information to the cerebral cortex
thalamus
action potential is yes/no on/off message, like standard light switch
all-or-none law