Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Raw sensory data from the senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste, balance, touch, and pain.
Process of creating meaningful patterns from that raw sensory data.
Receptor Cell
Converts energy into a neural signal, which is further coded as it travels along sensory nerves toward the brain.
Absolute Threshold
Least amount of energy needed to generate any sensation at all in a person 50% of the time.
Different Threshold/Just Noticeable Difference
Smallest change in stimulation that is detectable 50% of the time.
Weber's Law
Principle that the jnd for any given sense is a constant fraction or proportion of the stimulation being judged.
Our senses adjust to the level or stimulation they are experiencing.
Extrasensory Perception
A response to an unknown event not presented to any known sense.
Small segment of the electromagnetic spectrum to which our eyes are sensitive.
Transparent protective coating over the front part of the eye.
Small opening in the iris through which light enters the eye.
Colored part of the eye.
Transparent part of the eye inside the pupil that focuses light onto the retina.
Lining of the eye containing receptor cells that are sensitive to light.
Blind Spot
Place on the retina where the axons of all the ganglion cells leave the eye and where there are no receptors.
Area of the retina that is the center of the visual field.
Receptor cells in the retina responsible for night vision and perception of brightness.
Receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision.
Bipolar cells
Neurons that have only one axon and one dendrite; in the eye, these neurons connect the receptors on the retina to the ganglion cells.
Visual Acuity
Ability to distinguish fine details visually.
Dark adaption
Increased sensitivity of rods and cones in darkness.
Light Adaption
Decreased sensitivity of rods and cones in bright light.
Sense experience that occurs after a visual stimulus has been removed.
ganglion cells
Neurons that connect the bipolar cells in the eyes to the brain.
optic nerve
Bundle of axons of ganglion cells that carries neural messages from each eye to the brain.
optic chiasm
Point near the base of the brain where some fibers in the optic nerve from each eye cross to the other side of the brain.
feature detectors
specialized brain cells that only respond to particular elements in the visual field such as movement or lines of specific orientation.
The aspect of color that corresponds to names such as red, green, and blue.
vivideness or richness of a hue.
nearness of a color to white as opposed to black.
Additive Color Mixing
Process of mixing light of different wavelengths to create new hues.
Subtractive Color Mixing
Process of mixing pigments, each of which absorbs some wavelengths of light and reflects others.
Trichromatic Theory
Theory of color vision that holds that all color perception derives from three different color receptors in the retina.
People who have normal color visions.
Color Blindess
Partial or total inability to perceive hues.
People who are blind to either red-green or yellow-blue.
People who are totally color-blind.
Opponent-processing theory
Theory of color vision that holds that three sets of color receptors respond to determine the color you experience. (yellow-blue, red-green, black-white)
Psychological experience created by the brain in response to changes in air pressure that are received by the auditory system.
Sound Waves
Changes in pressure caused when molecules of air or fluid collide with one another and then move apart again.
Number of cycles per second in a wave, in sound, the primary determinant of pitch.
Hertz (Hz)
Cycles per second, unit of measurement for the frequency of sound waves.
Auditory experience corresponding primarily to frequency of sound vibrations, resulting in a higher or lower tone.
Magnitude of a wave; in sound, the primary determinant of loudness.
Unit of measurement for the loudness of sounds.
Tones that result from sund waves that are multiples of the basic tone; primarily determinant of timbre.
Quality of textur of sound; caused by overtones.
Hammer, avril, stirrup
Three small bones in the middle of the ear that relay vibrations of the eardrum to the inner ear.
Oval window
Membrane across the opening between the middle ear and inner ear that conducts vibrations to the cochlea.
Part of the inner ear containing fluid that vibrates which in turn causes the basilar membrane to vibrate.
Basilar Membrane
Vibrating membrane in the cochlea of the innner ear; it contains sense receptors for sound.
Organ of corti
Structure on the surface of the basilar membrane that contains the receptor cells for hearing.
place theory
Theory that pitch is determined by the location of greatest vibration on the basilar membrane.
frequency theory
theory that pitch is determined by the frequency with which hair cells in the cochlea fire.
volley principle
Refinement of frequencey theory; suggests that receptors in teh ear fire in sequence, with one group responding then the second, then a third, and so on so that the complete pattern of firing corresponds to the frequency of the sound wave.
olfactory epithelium
Nasal membranes containing receptor cells sensitive to odors.
olfactory bulb
smell center in the brain.
Chemical molecules that communicate information to other members of a species, and influence their behavior.
vomeronasal organ
Location of receptors for pheromones in the roof of the nasal cavity.
taste buds
Structures on the tongue that contain the receptor cells for taste.
Small bumps on the tongue that contain taste buds.
vestibular senses
Senses of equilibrium and body position in space.
Vestibular Sacs
Sacs in the inner ear that sense gravitation and forward, backward and vertical movement.
gate control theory
Theory that a neurological gate in the spinal cord controls the transmission of pain messages to the brain.
biopsychosocial theory
Theory that the interaction of biological, psycholigical, and cultural factors influence the inensity and duration of pain.
placebo effect
Pain relief that occurs when a person believes a pill or procedure will reduce their pain. The actual cause of the relief seems to come from endorphins.
entity perceived to stand apart from the ground.
background against which a figure appears.
perceptual constancy
tendency to perceive objects as stable and unchanging despite changes in sensory stimulation.
size constancy
Perception of an object as the same size regardless of the distance from which it is viewed.
shape consistancy
Tendency to see an object as the same shape no matter what angle it is viewed from.
color constancy
Inclination to perceive familiar objects as retaining their color despite changes in sensory information.
monocular cues
visual cues requiring the use of one eye.
binocular cues
visual cues requiring the use of both eyes.
aerial perspectives
Minocular cue to distance and depth based on the fact more distant objects are likely to appear hazy and blurred.
Texture gradient
Monocular cue to distance and depth based on the fact that objects seen at greater distances appear to be smoother and less textured.
Linear perspective
Monocular cue to distance and depth based on the fact that 2 parallel lines seem to come together at the horizon.
motion parallel
monocular distance cue in which objects closer to the point of visual focus seem to move in the direction-opposite to the viewer's moving head, and objects beyond the focus point appear to move in the same direction as the viewer's head.
stereoscopic vision
combination of two retinal images to give a three-dimensional perceptaul experience.
retinal disparity
binocular distance cue based on the difference between the images cast on the 2 retinas when both eyes are focused on the same objects.
visual depth cue that comes from muscles controlling eye movement as the eyes turn inward to view a nearby stimulus.
monaural cue
cue to sound location that requires just one ear.
binaural cue
cue to sound location that involves both ears working together.
autokinetic illusion
Perception that a stationary object is actually moving.
stroboscopic motion
apparent movement that results from flashing a series of still pictures in rapid sucession as a still motion picture.
phi phenomenon
apparent movement caused by flashing of lights in sequence as on theater marquees.
perceptual illusion
illusion due to leading cues in stimuli that give rise to inaccurate or impossible perceptions.