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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a phenotype?
Physical characteristics that you can view on the outside.
What is a genotype?
complex blend of genetic information that determines our species and influences all our unique characteristics.
What is the relationship between phenotype and genotype?
Phenotypes depend on genotypes
What are chromosomes?
Rod-like structures which store and transmit genetic information
What are the "rungs of the ladder" of DNA called?
What do DNA bases do?
provides genetic instruction.
What is a gene?
segment of DNA along the length of the chromosome.
What is mitosis?
A process through which DNA can duplicate itself.
What is the process of mitosis?
Genes send instructions for making proteins to the cytoplasm. Chromosomes copy themselves and each new cell contain the same number of chromosomes and have identical genetic information as the original chromosome.
What are gametes?
sex cells. The ovum and sperm.
How many chromosomes does a gamete have?
23. 1/2 as many as a regular body cell
How are gametes formed?
Through a cell division process called meiosis.
What is a zygote?
When sperm and ovum unite at conception.
How many chromosomes are in a regular body cell?
What is the process of Meiosis?
- chromosomes pair up and exchange segments. Genes from one are replaced by genes from another.
- Chance determines which member of each pair will gather with others and end up in the same sex cell (gamete).
How many sperm are produced when meiosis is complete?
How is it determined whether the child will be male or female?
If an x-bearing sperm fertilizes the egg it will be female.. if a y-bearing sperm fertilizes the egg it will be male
How do you get identical twins?
a zygote that has started to duplicate separates into two clusters of cells that develop into two individuals. They have the same genetic makeup
How do you get fraternal twins?
Results from the release and fertilization of two ova.
What is codominance?
a pattern of inheritance in which both genes influence the person's characteristics
What is x-linked inheritance?
when a harmful recessive gene is carried on the X chromosome, males are more likely to be affected because their sex chromosomes do not match.
What is genetic imprinting?
genes are chemically marked in such a ay that one member of the pair (either the mothers or fathers) is activated, regardless of its makeup.
What is mutation?
A sudden but permanent change in a segment of DNA.
What is polygenic inheritance?
many genes determine the characterisic in question.
What is the difference between genetic and chromosomal disorders?
genetic disorders are inherited from parents which chromosomal disorders happen when the body fails to do meiosis or mitosis correctly.
What is down syndrome?
Down syndrome occurs when the 21st pair of chromosomes fails to separate during meiosis and end up with 3 instead of 2 or there may be a broken piece present.
What is prenatal diagnosis?
medical procedures that permit detection of problems before birth
What is fetal medicine?
when the surgeons can give medicine to the fetus while it's in the uterus
What is socioeconomic status?
Combines 3 interrelated but not completely overlapping variables:

1-years of education
2-prestige of and skill required by one's job