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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Scientific method requires what four attitudes?
Curiosity, Skepticism, Objectivity,and Critical Thinking
Interpreting an entire body of knowledge, not just individual studies
Collaboration
The motivation force behind scientific enquiry
Curiosity
Quistioning things and not taking things for granted
Skepticism
Seeing things as they really are
Objectivity
Thinking reflectively, productively, and evaluating evidence.
Critical Thinking
Steps of Scientific Method
Theory, Hypothesis, Conceptualize problem,Collecting research,Analyze data,Drawing conclusions,Revise research conclusions and theory
A broad idea or set of closely related ideas that attempt to explain certain observations
Theory
An idea that is arrived at logically from a theory, prediction that can be tested
Hypothesis
An objective description of how a reseach variable is going to be observed and measured
Operational Definition
Chose to study whether writing about negative emotions and the situations that caused them would reduce stress and make people healthier in the future
Pennebaker
Every member of the population has an equal chance of being selectd
Random Sampling
Observes behavior in real-world situations and makes no attempt to manipulate or control situation
Naturalistic Observation
In-depth look at a single individual
Case study
Describes the strength of the relationship between two variables of characteristics
Correlation research
Degree of relationship between two variables
Correlation coefficient
Relationship in which two factors vary in the same direction
Positive correlation
Relationship in which the two factors vary in opposite directions
Negative correlation
Carefully regulated procedure in which one or more factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant.
Experiment
Event being manipulated by the investigator
Cause
Behavior that changes as a result of the manipulation
Effect
Variable manipulated by the researcher
Independent Variable
Variable or factor that is measured in the experiment. It can change in response to changes int the independent variable.
Dependent Variable
Group whose experience is manipulated
Experimental group
Comparison group in which all variables are held constant and no manipulation occurs
Control Group
Means that participants are assign to experimanetal and control groups by chance
Random Assignment
Mathematical procedures used to describe and summarize sets of data in a meaningful way
Descriptive statistics
Mathematical average of all scores
Mean
Score that falls exactly in the middle of the ranked distribution of scores
Median
Score that occurs most often in the set of data
Mode
Distance between the highest and lowest scores
Range
Measures how much the scores vary around the mean of the sample, or how closely the scores cluster around the mean
Standard Deviation
Mathematical methods used to draw conclusions about data that have been collected
Inferential Statistics
Means that the differences observed between two groups are so large that it is high unlikely that those differences are merely due to chance
Statistical significance
Means using an ethnic label in a superficial way
Ethnic gloss