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48 Cards in this Set

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Description of personality that has generally positive characteristics that can apply to most individuals. Teaches us that we can’t trust personal evidence of experience.
Barnum Effect
Classified people’s somatotype. Split the body into three different body types and each had a distinct personality type.
Personality Theory of Sheldon
The distinguishing pattern of psychological characteristics – thinking, feeling and behaving – that differentiates us from others and leads us to act consistently across situations.
A stable predisposition to act in a certain way.
Formal systems for assessing how people differ, particularly in their predispositions to respond in certain ways across situations.
Trait Theories
Greek Physician who matched the four distinct humors (fluids) of the body to personality types.
The dimensions of personality – extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness, that have been isolated through the application of factor analysis.
The Big Five
Allports term to describe personality traits that dominate an individual’s life, such as a passion to serve others (Mother Theresa). Not everyone has one of these.
Cardinal Traits
Allport’s term to describe the five to ten descriptive traits that you would use to describe someone you know. Ex: Dependability, most of the time they have this trait.
Central Traits
The less obvious characteristics of an individual’s personality that do not always appear in his or her behavior, such as testiness when on a diet.
Secondary Traits
Personality tests in which people answer groups of questions about how they typically think, act, and feel; their responses are then compared to average responses complied from large groups of prior test takers
Self report inventories
A type of personality test in which individuals are asked to interpret unstructured or ambiguous stimuli.
Projective Personality Tests
Theory that stresses 3 factors that supposedly capture all of the trait dimensions of people. These include: Introversion-Extroversion, Unstable-Stable, Sensitivity-Insensitivity.
Eysenck's Trait Theory
The most popular trait theory right now
The Big Five Theory
Consistency or lack thereof of consistency in behavior from day to day, is a trait in itself. A high one of these is a person who is always measuring their own behavior according to the expectations of others. A low one doesn’t pick up on what is expected of them.
Self Monitor
One’s behaviors, thoughts and feelings aren’t solely determined by internal or emotional factors – rather there’s a give-and-take situation whereby behavior, environmental and cognitive factors affect each other.
Reciprocal Determinism
Determines whether or not an individual feels responsible for the circumstances around them. A high internal one of these means they are responsible for circumstances, while a low one means that everything is outside of their power.
Locus of Control
The “filler” questions on tests that determine whether or not the subject is giving honest answers or ones based on presumed beliefs.
Social Desirability
Test questions put into the test to measure other traits that may interfere with the accurateness of the person’s answers.
Validity Scale
An approach to personality development, based largely on the ideas of Sigmund Freud, which holds that much of behavior is governed by unconscious forces.
Psychodynamic Theory
The contents of awareness – those things that occupy the focus of one’s current attention, according to Freud.
Conscious Mind
The part of the mind that contains all of the inactive but potential accessible thoughts and memories, according to Freud.
Preconscious Mind
The part of the mind that Freud believed housed all the memories, urges, and conflicts that are truly beyond awareness
Unconscious Mind
This section of the unconscious includes life motives, things that have to do with keeping the body alive. Also includes the Libido – according to Freud.
This section of the unconscious includes motives to exercise power over others, the motives of aggression – according to Freud.
In Freud’s theory, the portion of personality that is governed by inborn instinctual drivers, particularly those related to sex and aggression.
In Freud’s theory, the portion of personality that motivates people to act in an ideal fashion, in accordance with the moral customs defined by parents and culture.
In Freud’s theory, the portion of personality that induces people to act with reason and deliberation and helps them conform to the requirements of the external world.
According to Freud, unconscious processes used by the ego to ward off the anxiety that comes from confrontation, usually with the demands of the id.
Defense Mechanisms
Unconsciously pushing anxiety producing information out of awareness
A person refuses to accept the information as true.
Person reacts in the opposite way to which they think or feel. They hate their grandmother, so they shower them with love and praise.
Reaction Formation
The tendency to go back to an earlier stage of personality development.
Substitution of an acceptable reason for behavior when the real motive is unacceptable.
Getting angry or upset about one thing and then reacting on another. A guy who hates his boss goes home and beats his dog.
Taking one’s faults and projecting them onto others.
The most adaptive defense mechanism. Taking an unacceptable conflict and turning it into something good. Ex: An artist who has experienced lots of pain in their life, and takes those experiences and turns them into beautiful artwork.
The notion proposed by Carl Jung that certain kinds of universal symbols and ideas are present in the unconscious of all people.
Collective Unconscious
An approach to personality that focuses primarily on people’s unique capacity for choice, responsibility, and growth
Humanistic Approach
An organized set of perceptions that we hold about our abilities and characteristics.
Self Concept
The idea that we value what others think of us and constantly seek others’ approval, love and companionship.
Positive Regard
The expectations or standards that we believe others place on us.
Conditions of Worth
A discrepancy between the image we hold of ourselves – our self concept – and the sum of all of our experiences
The ingrained desire to reach one’s true potential as a human being.
Self actualization
According to the Humanistic approach, the way we would like to be.
Ideal Self
According to the Humanistic approach, the way we view ourselves
Real Self
An approach to personality that suggests it is human experiences, and interpretations of those experiences, that determine personality growth and development.
Social cognitive theories
The beliefs that we hold about our own ability to perform a task or accomplish a goal.
Self efficacy