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78 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
personality
individual's unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persists over time and across situations.
psychodynamic theories
personality theories contending that behvior results from psychological forces that interact within the individual, often outside conscious awareness.
unconsciousness
freud's theory, all the ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are not and normally cannot become aware.
psychoanalysis
theory of personality Freud developed as well as the form of therapy he invented.
Id
in Freud's theory of personality, the collection of unconscious urges and desires that continually seek expression.
pleasure principle
according to freud, the way in which the id seeks immediate gratification of an instinct.
ego
freud's term for the part of the personality that mediates between environmental demands (reality), coscience (superego), and instinctual needs (id); now often used as a synonym for self.
reality principle
according to freud, the way in which the ego seeks satisfy instinctional demands safely and effectively in the real world.
superego
according to freud, the social and parental standards the individual has internalized; the conscience and ego ideal.
ego ideal
part of the superego that consists of standards of what one should like to be.
defense mechanisms
self-deceptive techniques for reducing anxiety and guilt, including denial, repression, projection, identification, regression, intellectualization, reaction formation, displacement, and sublimation.
denial
refusal to acknowledge a painful or threatening reality.
repression
excluding uncomfortable thoughts, feelings, and desires from consciousness.
projection
attributing one's own repressed, motives, feelings or wishes to others.
identification
taking on the characteristics of someone else to avoid feeling incompetent.
regression
reverting to childlike behavior and defenses
intellectualization
thinking abstractly about stressful problems as a way of detaching oneself from them.
reaction formation
expression of exaggerated ideas and emotions that are the opposite of one's repressed beliefs or feelings.
displacement
shifting repressed motives and emotions from an original object to a substitute object.
sublimation
redirecting repressed motives and feelings into more socially acceptable channels.
lipido
according to freud, the energy generated by the sexual instinct.
fixation
according to freud, a partial or complete halt at some point in the individual's psychosexual development.
oral stage
first stage in Freud's theory of personality development, in which the infant's erotic feelings center on the mouth, lips, and tongue.
anal stage
second stage in freud's theory of personality development, in which erotic feelings center on the anus and on elimination.
phallic stage
third stage in freud's theory of personality development, in which erotic feelings center on the genitals.
oedipus complex and electra complex
according to freud, a child's sexual attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and jealousy toward the parent of the same sex; generally occurs in the phallic stage.
latency period
freud's theory of personality, a period in which the child appears to have no interest in the other sex; occurs after the phallic stage.
genital stage
freuds theory of personality development the final stage of normal adult sexual development makred by mature sexuality.
personal unconsciousness
jung's theory of personality, 1 of the 2 levels of the unconscious, it contains the individual's repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, and undeveloped ideas.
collective unconscious
jung's theory of personality, the level of the unconscious that is inherited and common to all members of a species.
archetypes
jung's theory of personality, thought forms common to all human beings, stored in teh collective unconscious.
persona
according to jung, our public self, the mask we put on to represent ourselves to others.
anima
according to jung, female archetype as it is expressed in teh male personality.
animus
according to jung, the maile archetype as it is expressed in the female personality.
extrovert
according to jung, person who usually focuses on social life and the external world instead of on his or her internal experience.
introvert
according to jung, a person who usually focuses on ihs or her own thoughts and feelings.
rational individuals
according to jung, people who regulate their actions by the psychological functions of thinking and feeling.
irrational individuals
according to jung, people who base their actions on perceptions, either through the senses (sensation) or through unconscious processess (intuition).
compensation
according to adler, person's effect to overcome imagined or real personal weakness.
inferiority complex
adler's theory, fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that results in emotional and social paralysis.
anxiety
horney's theory, individual's reaction to real or imagined threats.
neurotic trends
horney's term for irrational strategies for coping with emotional problems and minimizing anxiety.
humanistic personality theory
any peronality theory that asserts that fundamental goodness and their striving toward higher levels of functioning.
actualization tendency
according to rogers, drive of every organism to fulfill its biological potential and become what it is inherently capable of becoming.
self-actualization tendency
according to rogers, the drive of human beings to fulfill their self-concepts, or the images they have of themselves.
fully functioning person
according to rogers, individual whose self concept closely resembles his or her inborn capacities or potentials.
unconditional positive regard
rogers theory, full acceptance and love another person regardless of our behavior.
conditional positive regard
rogers theory acceptance and love that are dependent on behaving in certain ways and fulfilling certain conditions.
personality traits
dimensions or characteristics on or in which people differ in distinctive ways.
factor analysis
statistical technique that identifies groups of related objects; used by cattell to identify trait clusters.
big five
five traits or basic dimensions currently thought to be of central importance in describing personality.
cognitive-social learning theories
personality theories that view behavior as the product of the interaction of cognitions, learning and past experiences, and the immediate environment.
expectancies
bandura's view, what a person anticipates in a situation or as a result of behaving in certain ways.
performance standards
bandura's theory, standards that people develop to rate the adequacy of their own behavior in a variety of situations.
self-efficacy
according to bandura, expectancy that one's efforts will be successful.
locus of control
according to rotter, expectancy about whether reinforcement is under internal or external control.
objective tests
personality tests that are administered and scored in a standard way.
sixteen personality factor questions
objective personality created by cattell that provides scores on the 16 traits he identified.
NEO-PI-R
Objective personality test designed to assess the Big Five personality traits.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)
Most widely used objective personality test, originally intended for psychiatric diagnosis.
regression
reverting to childlike behavior and defenses
intellectualization
thinking abstractly about stressful problems as a way of detaching oneself from them.
reaction formation
expression of exaggerated ideas and emotions that are the opposite of one's repressed beliefs or feelings.
displacement
shifting repressed motives and emotions from an original object to a substitute object.
sublimation
redirecting repressed motives and feelings into more socially acceptable channels.
lipido
according to freud, the energy generated by the sexual instinct.
fixation
according to freud, a partial or complete halt at some point in the individual's psychosexual development.
oral stage
first stage in Freud's theory of personality development, in which the infant's erotic feelings center on the mouth, lips, and tongue.
anal stage
second stage in freud's theory of personality development, in which erotic feelings center on the anus and on elimination.
phallic stage
third stage in freud's theory of personality development, in which erotic feelings center on the genitals.
oedipus complex and electra complex
according to freud, a child's sexual attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and jealousy toward the parent of the same sex; generally occurs in the phallic stage.
latency period
freud's theory of personality, a period in which the child appears to have no interest in the other sex; occurs after the phallic stage.
genital stage
freuds theory of personality development the final stage of normal adult sexual development makred by mature sexuality.
personal unconsciousness
jung's theory of personality, 1 of the 2 levels of the unconscious, it contains the individual's repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, and undeveloped ideas.
collective unconscious
jung's theory of personality, the level of the unconscious that is inherited and common to all members of a species.
projective test
personality tests, such as the rorschach inkblot test, consisting of ambiguous or unstructured material.
rorschach test
projective test composed of ambiguous inkblots; the wya people interpret the blots is thought to reveal aspects of their personality.
thematic apperception test (TAT)
projective test composed of abmiguous pictures about which person is asked to write a complete story.