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52 Cards in this Set

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Piaget's term for the modification of an established schema to fit a new object or problem
accommodation
A transition from feeling part of the culture of one's original country to the culture of the country that one enters
acculturation
Piaget's term for the application of an established schema to a new objects or problems
assimilation
A long-term feeling of closeness between people, such as a child and a caregiver
attachment
Those who exert firm controls on their children,generally without explaining the reasons for the rules and without providing much warmth
authoritarian parents
Those who are demanding and impose firm controls, but who are also warm and responsive to the child's communications
authoritative parents
The ability to alternate between membership in one culture and membership in another
biculturalism
A strand of hereditary material found in the nucleus of a cell
chromosome
A group of people born at a particular time (as compared to people born at different times)
cohort
The concept that objects retain their weight, volume, and certain other properties in spite of changes in their shape or arrangement
conservation
A study of groups of individuals of different ages all at the same time
cross-sectional study
An increase in a previously habituated response as a result of a change in the stimulus
dishabituation
The inability to take the perspective of another person; a tendency to view the world as centered around oneself
egocentric
The establishment of harmony or balance between assimilation and accommodation
equilibration
A condition marked by stunted growth of the head and body; malformations of the face, heart, and ears; and nervous system damage, including seizures, hyperactivity, learning disabilities, and mental retardation
fetal alcohol syndrome
an organism more developed than an embryo but not yet born (from about 8 weeks after conception until birth in humans)
fetus
Twins who develop from two eggs (dizygotic) fertilized by two different sperm; they are not more closely related than are any other children born to the same parents
fraternal twins
A segment of a chromosome that controls chemical reactions that ultimately direct the development of the organism
gene
A decrease in a person's response to a stimulus after it has been presented repeatedly
habituation
An estimate of the variance within a population that is due to heredityh
heritability
Twins who develop from the same fertilized egg (monozygotic) and therefore have the same genes
identical twins
The outcome of having explored various possible identities and then making one's own decisions
identity achievement
Concerns with decisions about the future and the quest for self-understanding
identity crisis
The condition of having not yet given any serious thought to identity decisions and having no clear sense of identity
identity diffusion
The state of having made firm identity decisions without having through much about them
identity foreclosure
The state of seriously considering one's identity without yet having made any decisions
identity moratorium
Those who pay little attention to their children beyond doing what is necessary to feed and shelter them
indifferent or uninvolved parents
A study of a single group of individuals over time
longitudinal study
A time of goal reassessment
midlife transition
A problem that pits one moral value against another
moral dilemma
The concept that objects continue to exist even when one does not see, hear, or otherwise sense them
object permanence
According to Piaget a mental process that can be reversed
operation
Those who are warm and loving but undemanding
permissive parents
An inherited disorder in which a person lacks the chemical reactions that convert a nutrient called phenylalanine into other chemcials; unless the diet is carefully controlled, the affected person will become mentally retarded
phenylketonuria (PKU)
According to Piaget the second stage of intellectual development, in which children lack operations
preoperational stage
An organized way of interacting with objects in the world
schema
The tendency of some kinds of people to be more likely than others to drop out of a study
selective attrition
According to Piaget the first stage of intellectual development; an infant's behavior is limited to making simple motor responsess to sensory stimli
sensorimotor stage
A procedure in which researchers start with groups of people of different ages, studied at the same time, and then study them again at one or more later times
sequential design
The pair of chromosomes that determine whether an individual will develop as a female or as a male
sex chromosomes
A gene that affects one sex more strongly than the other, even though both sexes have the gene
sex-limited gene
A gene located on the X chromosome
sex-lined gene
According to Piaget the ability to deal with the properties of concrete objects but not hypothetical or abstract questions
stage of concrete operations
According to Piaget the stage when children develop the ability to deal with abstract, hypothetical situations, which demand logical, deductive reasoning and systematic planning
stage of formal operations
A procedure in which a spychologist observes an infant's behavior in an unfamiliar room at various times as a stranger enters, leaves, and returns
Strange Sitations
People's tendency to be either active or inactive, outgoing or reserved, and to respond vigorously or quietly to new stimuli
temperament
The proposal that we cope with our fear of death by avoiding thinking about death and by affirming a worldview that provides self-esteem, hope, and value in life
terror-management theory
An understanding that other people have a mind too and that each person knows some things that other people don't know
theory of mind
A sex chromosome; females have two per cell and males have only one
X chromosome
A sex chromosome; males have one per cell and females ahve none
Y chromosome
The distance between what a child can do on his or her own and what the child can do with the help of adults or older children
zone of proximal development
A fertilized egg cell
zygote