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58 Cards in this Set

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developmental psychology
Study of the changes that occur in people from birth through old age.
cross-sectional study
Method of studying development changes by comparing people of different ages at about the same time.
Cohort
Group of people born during the same period in historical time.
Longitudinal Study
Methods of studying developmental changes by evaluating the same people at different points in their lives.
Biographical (or retrospective) Study
Method of studying developmental changes by reconstructing people's past through interviews and interferring the effects of past events on current behavior.
prenatal development
Development from conception to birth.
embryo
developing human through 2 weeks and 3 months after conception.
fetus
developing human between 3 months after conception and birth.
placenta
organ by which an embryo or fetus is attracted to its mother's uterus and that nourishes it during prenatal development.
teratogens
toxic substances such as alcohol or nicotine that cross the placenta and may result in birth defects.
critical period
time when certain internal and external influences have a major effect on development at other periods the same influences will have little or no effect.
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Disorder that occurs in children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy that is characterized by facial deformities, heart defects, stunted growth, and cognitive impairments.
neonates
newborn babies.
rooting reflex
relfex that causes a newborn baby to turn its head toward something that touches its cheek and to grope around with its mouth.
sucking reflex
newborn baby's tendency to suck on objects placed in the mouth.
swallowing reflex
reflex that enables the newborn to swallow liquids without choking.
grasping relfex
relfex that causes newborn babies to close their fists around anything that is put in their hands.
stepping reflex
reflex that causes newborn babies to make little stepping motions if they are held together with their feet just touching a surface.
temperament
characteristic patterns of emotional reactions and emotional self-regulation.
developmental norms
ages by which an average child achieves various developmental milestones.
maturation
automatic biological unfolding of development in an organism as a function of the passage of time.
sensory-motor stage
piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development between birth and 2 years of age in which the individual develops object permanence and acquires the ability to form mental representations.
object permanence
concept that things continue to exist even when they are out of sight.
mental representation
mental images or symbols (such as words) used to think about or remember an object, a person, or an event.
preoperational stage
in piagets theory, stage of cognitive development between 2 and 7 years in age in which the individual becomes able to use mental representation and language to describe, remember, and reason about the world, though only in an egoncentric fashion.
egocentric
describes the inability to see things from another's point of view.
concrete-operational stage
piaget's theory, stage of congitive development between 7 and 11 years old in which the individual can attend to more than 1 thing at a time and understand someone else's point of view, though thinking is limited to concrete matters.
principle of conservation
concept that the quantity of a substance is not altered by reversible changes in its appearance.
formal-operational stage
piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development between 11 and 15 years of age in which the individual becomes capable of abstract thought.
bubbling
baby's vocalization, consisting of repitition of consonant-vowel combinations.
holophrases
one-word sentences comonly used by children under 2 years of age.
language acquisition device
hypothetical neural mechanism for acquiring language that is presumed to be wired into all humans.
imprinting
tendency in certain species to follow the first moving thing (usually its mother) it sees after it is born or hatched.
attachment
emotionally bond that develops in the first year of life that makes human babies cling to their caregivers for safety and comfort.
autonomy
sense of independence; a desire not to be controlled by others.
socialization
process in which children learn the behaviors and attitudes appropriate to their family and culture.
solitary play
child engaged in a recreational activity alone; the earliest form of play.
parellel play
two children playing side by side at similar activities but paying little attention or no attention to each other, the earliest kind of social interaction between toddlers.
cooperative play
two or more children engaged in play that requires interaction.
peer group
network of same-aged friends and acquaintances who give one another emotional and social support.
nonshared environment
unique aspects of the environment of the environment that are experienced differently by siblings even though they are reared in the same family.
gender identity
little girl's knowledge that she is a girl, and little boy's knowledge that he is a boy.
gender constancy
realization that gender does not change the age.
gender-role awareness
knowledge of what behavior is appropriate for each gender.
gender stereotypes
general beliefs about characteristics that men and women are presumed to have.
sex-typed behavior
socially prescribed ways of behaving that differ for boys and girls.
growth spurt
rapid increase in height and weight that occurs during adolscense.
puberty
onset of sexual maturation; with accompanying physical development
menarche
first menstrual period
imaginary audience
elkind's term for adolscent's delusion that they are constantly being observed by others.
personal fable
elkind's term for adolscent's delusions they are unique, very important and invulnerable.
identity formation
erikson's term for the development of a stable sense of self necessary to make the transition from dependence on others to dependence on oneself.
indentity crisis
period of intense self examination and decision making; part of the process of identity formation.
cliques
groups of adolescents with similar interests and strong mutual attachment.
midlife crisis
time when adults discover they no longer feel fulfilled in their jobs or personal lives and attempt to make a decisive shift in career or lifestyle.
midlife transition
according to levinson, a process whereby adults assess the past and formulate new goals for the future.
menopause
time in a woman's life when menstruation ceases.
alzheimer's disease
neurological disorder, most commonly found in late adulthood, characaterized by progressive losses in memory and cognition and changes in personality.