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60 Cards in this Set

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def. experiment
a situation in which the researcher manipulates 1 variable and observes the effect of that manipulation on another variable, while holding all other variables constant
def. theory
an integrated set of propositions used 2 explain certain phenomena, including behavior and mental processes
def. naturalistic observation
the process of watching without interfering as a phenomenon occurs in the natural environment
def. case studies
research involving the intensive examination of some phenomenon in a particular individual, group, or situation
def. surveys
research that involves giving people questionaires or interviews, designed 2 describe their attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and intentions
def. reliability
the degree 2 which test results or other research evidence occurs repeatedly
def. validity
the degree 2 which evidence from a test or other research evidence occurs repeatedly
gestalt psychology founders
max wertheimer
gestalt psychology goals
2 describe organization of mental processes; "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
gestalt psychology methods
observation of sensory/perceptual phenomena
psychoanalysis founders
sigmund freud
psychoananlysis methods
study of individual cases
psychoanalysis goals
2 explain personality and behavior, 2 develop techniques 4 treating mental disorders
functionalism founders
william james
functionalism goals
2 study how the mind works in allowing an organism 2 adapt 2 the environment
functionalism methods
naturalistic observation of animal and human bahavior
behaviorism founders
john B watson and b. f. skinner
behaviorism goals
2 study only observable behavior and explain behavior via learning principles
behaviorism methods
observation of the relationship between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses
structuralism founders
edward titchener (trained by wilhelm wundt)
structuralism goals
2 study conscious experience and its structure
structuralism methods
experiments, introspection
nature vs. nurture def.
the continuing debate over whether heredity (nature) or environmental (nurture) is most central or important 2 psychology and human development
(intricately linked)
nature characteristics
genetic makeup, hormones, structure of body
nurture characteristics
way brought up, life experiences or culture, environment
physiology( biology)
influenced the early discipline of psychology (where the brain and the body were related 2 different behavioral functions in the 1600s and early 1800s)
Aristotle born
1)Greek Philosopher (384-323 BC)
Aristotle lectured on
dreams, the senses, memory, and learning

earliest known origin of psychology as a discipline and area of teaching and learning
Rene Descartes
mathmetician and french philosopher
Rene Descartes beliefs
proposed the concept of "dualism" or "interactive dualism" where the body and mind are different and separate entities and concept of "autonotom"
concept dualism
body mind separate
Wilhelm Wundt
German psych in experimental scientist
Wilhelm Wundt is important because
1)Founder of Psychology
2)established the first research laboratory in psychology
William James is
American Psychologist who studied development
William James
examined and established functionalism or the application of psychology to how behavior "functions" in education, child rearing, and environment
G. Stanley Hall
student of Willaim James
received phd in Psychology in the U.S.
G. Stanley Hall Accomplishments
1)established 1st psychological research lab at John Hopkins Uiniversity in 1883
2)began/published the American Journal of Psychology and was elected 1st president of american psychological association (APA) (most prominent)
sigmund freud is
Austrian physician
sigmund freud import. b/c
founder of psychoanalysis
sigmund freud beleifs:
1)emphasized human behavior in stages
2)beleived huamn behavior was partially conscious and partially unconsciousand motivated by sexual or aggressive instincts
3)early childhood experiences form personality in adulthood
main sigmund freud image
iceburg with disturbing thoughts in subconscious that could be brought into conscious
cognitive psych keys
1)sensation/perception
2)learning /memory
a)repress/recover traumatic
3)judgement/decision making/problem-solving
another name for biological psych.
nu=euroscientists or physiological psychologists
personality psych keys
1)individuality
2)positive psychologists (people who remain optimistic)
3)combonation of traits can predict behavior
developmental psychologist keys
changes over life span (cause/effects)
quantitaitve psychologist keys
1)dev./use statistical methods
2)correlation coefficient
a)evaluate validity test
clinical, counseling, and community psych. all
study causes of behavior disorders and offer services 2 help overcome
clinical keys
phd
therapy research
counseling keys
phd, masters
mental health counselor example
community keys
homeless
try to prevent poverty and other conditions
psychiatrist keys
medical doctor
specialty abnormal psych.
educational psych. keys
teaching/learning
jigsaw technique(children from various ethnic groups must work together)
examples forensic psychology
criminal profiles
jury selection
insanity
sceintific psychology has roots in
philosophy, especially epiricism
empiricists
believe mind is like blank slate for experiences
Charles Darwin
in 1859 published origin of species
charles darwin believed
1)forms of life result of evolution
2)through natural selection those that can withstand survive and pass on 2 offspring
3)those that can't adapt die out
wundt explored
conscious
wundt used
introspection
edward titchener
implemented wundts ideas