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38 Cards in this Set

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Single and Double Blind Studies
Double Blind: a procedure in which both the participants and theresearch staff are "blind" about whether the participants are recieving the treatment or a placebo (usually used in drug study tests)
Independent Variable (IV)
the experimental factor being manipulated (the variable whose effects are being studied)
Random Sampling
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance
minimize pre-existing differences between those assigned to different groups
Nature vs. Nurture
the long standing controversy over the relative contributions thatgenes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
John Locke
empirist psychologist who believed thatthe mind was a 'tabula rosa'- a blank slate at birth
William James
"father of psychology"
more interested inwhy the mind performed what it did and how it helped people advance
gave first psychological lecture
Wilhem Wundt
first psychological experiment
studied elemental structure of mind
Functionalism
The study of how mental and behavioral processes function and enable an organism to adapt and flourish
Structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
Correlation
statistical measure of the extent of which two factors vary together
studies how well either factor predicts the other
Mean, median, mode
Mean: the average of all scores
Median: the middle score
Mode: most repeated #
Overconfidence
when one believes they know more than they actually do
Intuition
instinctive knowledge
Hindsight bias
believing that the conclusion of an event that already occured was obvious
Dependent Variable (DV)
the experimental factor being studied the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
Evolutionary Psychology
thestudy of the evolution ofbehavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection. natural selection has favored genes that designed both behavioral tendencies and information-processing systems that solved adaptive problems faced by our ancestors, thus contributing to the survival and thespread of their genes
Behavior Genetics
the influence of genes on your behavior
study of the genes affectrs our personality and our environment
Socio-cultural
the study of behavior and thinking vary across situation and cultures
how does the environment affect behavior?
Evolutionary
natueral selection chooses the traits taht will promote the survival of the species
studies the effect of evolution on behavior
Neuroscience
body and brain enable emotions, memories and sensory experiences
messages and blood travel transmitted through the body
Cognitive
the study of how we encode, process, store and retrieve information
reasoning, problem solving, decision making
False Consensus Effect
the tendency to over-estimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
Illusory Correlation
the perception of a relationship that does not exist
to determine correlation, you need confirming evidence from all possibilities
Placebo Effect
experimental results caused by believing that one is getting treated
Psychology
thescientific study of mental processes and behavior
Empiricism
Knowledge coems from experience, through the senses
science comesfrom observation and experimentation
Introspection
1st hand reports
Natural Selection
nature will select the best traits that will help the organism survive
Psychodynamic
behavior is influenced from unconcious drives and conflicts
Behavioral
the study of observable responses
how do we react to situations
how to alter behavior
Basic Research
pursuit of kowledge for its own sake
Applied Research
using scientific findings to solve more problems
this is how theories are built
clinical psychologists
study,acess and treat troubled peopel
psychiatrist
medical Dr. who treates psychological disorders
case study
an observation of an individual or specific group studied in depth with intent of revealing universal principles about the general population
survey
a technique of attaining self reported attitudes or bwehaviors or people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample them
wording effects
the wording of a question can have major effects on how the person will answer
scatterplots
graphs which illustrate the correlations of two variables