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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the "I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.")
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
operational definition
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic findings extends to other participants and circumstances.
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study. (Note: Except for national studies, this does NOT refer to a country's whole population.)
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
correlation coefficient
a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other.
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation). (Also called a scattergram or scatter diagram.)
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experiment controls other relevant factors.
double-blind procedure
an experiemental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
dependent variable
the experimental factor- in psychology, the behavior or mental process- that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
the most frequently occuring score in a distribution.
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occured by chance.
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.