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22 Cards in this Set

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Simple sugar that provides energy and is primarily produced by the conversion of carbohydrates and fats; commonly called blood sugar.
glucose
Hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood levels of glucose and signals the hypothalamus, regulating hunger and eating behavior.
insulin
When the body is at rest, that rate at which it uses energy for vital functions, such as heartbeat and respiration.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Body fat that is the main source of stored, or reserve, energy.
adipose tissue
The long-term matching of food intake to energy expenditure.
energy homeostasis
Hormone manufactured primarily by the stomach that stimulates appetite and the secretion of growth hormone by the pituitary gland.
ghrelin
In eating behavior, he anticipated pleasure of consuming a particular food; in general, the expectation of pleasure or satisfaction in performing a particular behavior.
positive incentive value
In eating behavior, the feeling of fullness and diminished desire to eat that accompanies eating a meal; in general, that sensation of having an appetite or desire fully or excessively satisfied.
satiation
Hormone secreted primarily by the small intestine that promotes satiation; also found in the brain.
cholecystokinin (CCK)
The reduced desire to continue consuming a particular food.
sensory-specific satiety
Hormone produced by fat cells that signals the hypothalamus, regulating hunger and eating behavior.
leptin
Neurotransmitter found in several brain areas, most notably the hypothalamus, that stimulates eating behavior and reduces metabolism, promoting positive energy balance and weight gain.
neuropeptide (NPY)
Theory that proposes that humans and other animals have a natural or optimal body weight, called the _set point weight_ , that the body defends from becoming higher or lower by regulating feelings of hunger and metabolism.
set-point theory
General model of weight regulation suggesting that body weight settles, or stabilizes, around the oint at which there is a blance between the factors influencing energy intake and energy expenditure.
settling-point models of weight regulation
A numerical scale indicating adult height in realtion to weight.
body mass index (BMI)
Condition characterized by excessive body fat and a body mass index equal to or greater than 30.0.
obese
The tendency to eat more when a wide variety of palatable foods is available.
cafeteria diet effect
A condition in which higher-than-normal blood levels of the hormone leptin do not produce the expected physiological weight.
leptin resistance
Repeated cycles of dieting, weight loss, and weight regain; also called _yo-yo dieting_.
weight cycling
A category of mental disorders characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior.
eating disorder
An eating disorder characterized by excessive weight loss, an irrational fear of gaining weight, and distorted body perception.
anorexia nervosa
An eating disorder characterized by binges of extreme overeating followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, or other inappropriate methods to purge the excessive food and prevent weight gain.
bulemia nervosa