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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The mantel processes that enable us to retain and use information over time.
The process of transforming information into a form that can be entered into and retained by the memory system.
The process of retaining information in memory so that it can be used at a later time.
The process of recovering information stored in memory so that we are consciously aware of it.
A model of describing memory as consisting of three distinct stages: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
stage model of memory
The stage of memory that registers information from the
environment an hold it for a very brief period of time.
sensory memory
The active stage of memory in which information is stored for up to about 20 seconds.
short-term memory
The stage of memory that represents the long term storage of information.
long-term memory
The mental or verbal repetition of information in order to maitain it beyond the usuual 20-second duration of short-term memory.
maintenance rehearsal
Increasing the amount of inforamtion that can be held in short-term memory by grouping related items together into a single unit, or _chunk_.
Short-term memory system involved in the temporary stage and active manipulation of information; in Baddeley's model, includes the _phonological loop_, _visuospatial sketchpad_, and _central executive components_.
working memory
Reharsal that involves focusing on the meaning of information to help encode and transfer it to long-term memory.
elaborative rehearsal
The view that information is processed at a deeper (more meaningful) level is more likely to be remembered than information that is processed at a shallow (less meaningful) level.
levels-of-processing framework
Category of long-term memory that includes memories of different skills, operations, and actions.
procedural memory
Category of long-term memory that includes memories of particular events.
episodic memory
Category of long-term memory that includes memories of general knowledge of facts. names, and concepts.
semantic memory
Information or knowledge that can be conscioiusly recollected; also called _declarative memory_.
explicit memory
Information or knowledge that affects behavior or task performance but cannot be consciously recollected; also called _nodeclarative memory_.
implicit memory
Organizing items into related groups during recall from long term memory.
A model that dscribes units of information in long-term memory as being organized in a complex network of associations.
sematic network model
The process of accessing stored information.
A clue. prompt, or hint that helps trigger recall of a given piece of information stored in long-term memory.
retrieval cue
The inability to recall long-term memories because of inadequate or missing retrieval cues.
retrieval cue failure
A memory phenomenon that involves the sensation of knowing that specific information is stored in long-term memory, but being temporarily unable to retrieve it.
tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) experience
A test of long-term memory that involves retrieving information without the aid of retrieval cues.

also called
free recall
A test of long-term memory that involves remembering an item of information in response to a retrieval cue.
cued recall
A test of long-term memory that involves identifying correct information out of several possible choices.
The tendency to remember items at the beginning and end of a list better than items in the middle.
serial position effect
The principle that when the conditions of information retrieval are similar to the conditions of information encoding, retrieval is more likely to be successful.
encoding specificity principle
The tendency to recover information more easily when the retrieval occurs in the same setting as the original learning of the information.
context effect
An encoding specificity phenomenon in which a given mood tends to evoke memories that are consistent with that mood.
mood congruence
The recall of very specific images or details surrounding a vivid, rare, or significant personal event; details may or may not be accurate.
flashbulb memory
The inability to recall information that was previously available.
The inability to recall specific information because of insufficient encoding of the information for storage in long-term memory.
encoding failure
Remembering to do something in the future.
prospective memory
A brief but intense feeling of remembering a scene or event that is actually being experienced for the first time; French for "already seen."
deja vu
Memory for when, where, and how a particular piece of information was aqcuired.
source memory


source monitoring
The view that forgetting is due to normal metabolic processes that occur in the brain over time.
decay theory
The theory that forgetting is caused by one memory competing with or replacing another.
interference theory
Forgetting in which a new memory interferes with remembering and old memory; backward acting memory interference.
retroactive interference
Forgetting in which and old memory interferes with remembering a new memory; forward-acting memory interference.
proactive interference
Motivated forgetting that occurs consciously.
Motivated forgetting that occurs unconsciously.
A memory-distortion phenomenon in which a person's existing memories can be altered if the person is exposed to misleading information.
misinformation effect
A memory distortion that occurs whe the true source of the memory is forgotten.
source confusion
A distorted or fabricated recollection of something that did not actually occur.
false memory
An organized cluster of information about a particular topic.
A schema for the typical sequence of an everyday event.
A memory phenomenon in which vividly imagining an event markedly increases confidence that the event actually occured.
imagination inflation
The brain changes associated with a particular stored memory.
memory trace
A long-lasting increase in synaptic strength between two neurons.
long-term potentiation
Severe memory loss.
Loss of memory, especially for episodic information; backward-acting amnesia.
retrograde amnesia
The gradual, physical process of converting new long-term memories to stable, enduring long-term memory codes.
memory consolidation
Loss of memory caused by the inability to store new memories; forward-acting amnesia.
anterograde amnesia
Progressive deterioration and impairment of memory, reasoning, and other cognitive functions occurring as the result of a disease or condition.
A progressive disease that destroys tha brain's neurons, gradually impairing memory, thinking, language, and other cognitive functions, resulting in the complete inability to care for oneself; the most common form of dementia.
Alzheimer's disease (AD)