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32 Cards in this Set

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A cycle or rhythm that is roughly 24 hours long; the cyclical daily fluctuations in biological and psychological processes.
cricadian rhythm
A cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus in the brain that governs the timing of circadian rhythms.
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
A hormone manufactured by the pineal gland that produces sleepiness.
melatonin
A instrument that uses electrodes placed on the scalp to measure and record the brain's electrical activity.
electroencephalogram
The graphic record of brain activity produced by and electroencephalograph.
EEG (electroencephalogram)
Type of sleep during which rapid eye movements (REM) and dreaming usually occur and voluntary muscle activity is suppressed.
REM sleep

also called

active sleep or paradoxical sleep
Quiet, typically dreamless sleep in which rapid eye movements are absent; divided into four stages.
NREM sleep

also called

quiet sleep
Brain-wave pattern associated with relaxed wakefulness.
beta brain waves
Brain-wave pattern associated with relaxed wakefulness and drowsiness.
alpha brain waves
Vivid sensory phenomena that occur during the onset of sleep.
hypnagogic hallucinations
Short bursts of brain activity that characterize stage 2 NREM sleep.
sleep spindles
Single but large high-voltage spike of brain activity that characterizes stage 2 NREM sleep.
K complex
A temporary condition in which a person is unable to move upon awakening in the morning or during the night.
sleep paralysis
A pehnomenon in which a person who is deprved of REM sleep greatly increases the amount of time spent in REM sleep at the first opportunity to sleep uninterrupted.
REM rebound
The view that sleep and dreaming are essential to normal physical and mental functioning.
restorative theory of sleep
The view that uniue sleep patterns of different aniimals evolve over time to help promote survival and environmental adaptation.
adaptive theory of sleep

also called

evolutionary theory of sleep
Serious disturbances in the normal sleep pattern that interfere with daytime functioning and cause subjective distress.
sleep disorders
A condition in which a person regularly experiences an inability to fall asleep, stay asleep, or to feel adequately rested by sleep.
insomnia
A condition in which unpleasant sensations in the lower legs are accompanied by an irrisistible urge to move the lega, temporarily relieving the unpleasant sensation but disrupting sleep.
restless legs syndrome (RLS)
A sleep disorder in which the person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep.
sleep apnea
A sleep disturbance characterized by an episode of walking or performing other actions during stage 3 or stage 4 NREM sleep.
sleepwalking

also called

somnambulism
A sleep disturbance characterized by an episode of increased physiological arousal, intense fear and panic, firghtening hallucinations, and no recall of the episode the next morning; typically occurs during stage 3 or stage 4 NREM sleep
night terrors

or

sleep terrors
A category of sleep disorders characterized by arousal or activaltion during sleep or sleep transitions; includes sleepwalking, night terrors, sleep bruxism, sleep-related eating disorder, and REM sleep behvior disorder.
parasomnias
A sleep disorder in which the sleeper acts out his or her dreams.
REM sleep behavior disorder
A sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and brief lapses into sleep throughout the day.
narcolepsy
A sudden loss of voluntary muscle strength and control that is usually triggered by an intense emotion.
cataplexy
Repetitive, bland, uncreative ruminations about real-life events during sleep.
sleep thinking
A storylike episode of unfolding mental imagery during sleep.
dream
A frightening or unpleasant anxiety dream that occurs during REM sleep.
nightmare
In Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the elements of a dream that are consciously experienced and remembered by the dreamer.
manifest content
In Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the unconscious wishes, thoughts, and urges that are concealed in the manifest content of a dream.
latent content
The theory that brain activity during sleep produces dream images (activation), which are combined by the brain into a dream story (synthesis).
activation-synthesis model of dreaming