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20 Cards in this Set

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The <b>scientific</b> study of behavior and mental processes.

Descended from Philosophy & Physiology.
Psychology
Credited with <b>founding psychology</b> as an experimental science.

German physiologist
Wilhelm Wundt
1832-1920
1st school of psychology

Uses Objective Introspection

founded by Titchener
Structuralism
Student of Wundt

founder of Structuralsim
Edward B. Titchener
1867-1927
School of psychology that emphasizes the adaptive role of behaviour.

Founded by William James.
Functionalism
Founded and promoted psychology in U.S.

Founder of Functionalism.

Mentor of G. Stanley Hall and Mary Whiton Calkins.
William James
1842-1910
Emphasized the role of unconscious conflicts in determining behaviour and personality.

Established by Sigmund Freud.
Psychoanalysis
Rejected the study of mental processes
Emphasized the study of observable behaviour, especially the principles of learning.

Emerged during early 1900s, based on Ivan Pavlov's research.

!st championed by John Watson.

Further developed by B.F. Skinner.
Behaviorism
Emphasized psychological growth and the importance of choice in human behaviour.

Carl rogers and Abraham Maslow
Humanistic psychology
7 different perspectives of psychology, providing an example of the diversity of the science.
biological
psychodynamic
behavioral
humanistic
cognitive
cross-cultural
evolutionary
The four goals of psychology.
Describe
Explain
Predict
Influence (human behavior and mental processes)
4 steps of scientific process.
1. Generate a hypothesis that can be tested empirically
2. Design the study and collect the data
3. Analyze the data and draw conclusions
4. report the findings
Tools for understanding and explaining behavior adn mental processes.

Models that develop to explain different findings on a related topic.

They evolve and change as new evidence emerges.
Theories
Research strategies used to observe and describe behaviour.

Ex.
Naturalistic observation
Case study
Descriptive research methods
Research method that aims to detect behaviour patterns as they exist in their natural settings.
Naturalistic observation
Research method that involves intensive study of a single subject of small group of subjects.
Case study
Three methods of research administered to a sample of the larger group to be investigated.
Surveys, questionnaires, and interviews
Studies that investigate how strongly two factors are related to each other.
Correlational studies
Indicates that two factors vary in the same direction.
Positive correlation
Indicates that two factors vary in opposite directions.
Negative correlation