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56 Cards in this Set

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Erikson's third stage is?
initiative vs. guilt
Erikson believed that play was a mean through which young children learn about themselves and their ____ world
social
conscience by identifying with the same sex parent
superego
if you have an overly strict superego the child feels much?
guilt, because they have been threatened,criticized,and punished
realization that the self is seperate from the surrounding world,
I-self
consist of all qualities that make the self-unique, physical characterstics and possessions, desires, attitudes, beliefs
me-self
the set of attributes, abilites, attitudes and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is
self-concept
at this age preschoolers describe themselves in terms of typical emotions and attitudes
3 1/2
judgements we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgements
self-esteem
preschoolers rate their own ability as:
extremely high and underestimate task difficulty
what 3 factors support emotional development in early childhood?
representation,language,self-concept
at this age children correctly judge the causes of many basic emotions
4 to 5 years old
what are two factors that contribute to self-regulation
language, temperament
actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self
prosocial, altruistic behavior
feelings of concern or sorrow for anothers plight
sympathy
social development proceeds in a three step sequence:
nonsocial activity, parallel play, associate play or cooperative play
what play? unoccupied onlooker behavior and solitary play
nonsocial
what play? child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior
parallel play
what play? children engage in seperate activities but exchange toys and comments on one anothers behavior
associative play
what play? more advanced play of interaction in which children orient toward a common goal
cooperative play
this age children regard friendship as pleasuragle play and sharing of toys
4 to 7
is this direct or indirect?
arrange informal peer play activities tend to have larger peer networks
direct
is this direct or indirect?
the parent promotes it and influences it
indirect
at this age they use words to evaluate behavior as good or bad and react with distress to cts that are aggressive or that otherwise might do harm
2 years
adult helps the child notice feeling by pointing out the effects of the child's misbehavior on others
induction
____ are most influential in the preschool years
models
this promotes only momentary compliance not lasting changes in behavior
punishment
this % of Canadian parents admit to having spanked or hit their children
70
removing children from the immediate setting, until they are ready to act appropriately
time out
at this age children can tell the difference between truthfulness and lying
4 years
protect peoples rights and welfare from two other types of actions
moral imperatives
customs determined solely by consensus such as table manners? and they do not violate rights, are not socially regualated and are up to the individual?
social convections
matters of personal choice
children want an object, privilege, or space and in trying to get it they push hit or attack a person
instrumental aggression
this aggression is meant to hurt someone
hostile aggression
3 types of hostile aggresion:
physical,verbal,relational
harms others through physical injury, hitting, pushing
physical aggression
harms others through threats of pyshical aggression, name calling
verbal aggression
damages others peer relationships through social exclusion, gossip,frienship manipulation
relational aggression
in the US this & of television programs contain violence
57
this % of violent is above average in childs programming and cartoons are most violent
9
association of objects, activites,roles, or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural sterotypes
gender typing
___ affects human play styles
hormones
at this age children spend three times as much time with same-sex as with other sex playmates
4 years
image on oneself as relatively masculine or feminine in characterstics
gender identity
scoring high on both masculine and feminine personality charcterstics
androgyny
understanding that sex is biologically based an remains the same even if clothing,hairstyle change
gender constancy
info-processing approach to gender typing that combines social learning and cognitive-developmental features, it explains how enviornmental pressures and childrens cognitions work together to shape gender role development
gender schema theory
combinations of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide range of situations creaing an enduring child rearing climate
child-rearing style
the most successful approach to child rearing involves high acceptance and involvement adaptive control techniques and appropriate autonomy granting
authoritative child rearing style
low in acceptance and involvement high in coercive control and low in autonmy granting
authoriatrian child rearing style
intrude on and manipulate childrens verbal expressions, individuality, and attachments to parents
psychological control
warm and accepting but uninvolved
permissive child rearing
combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to autonomy granting
uninvolved child rearing style
types of maltreatment:
physical,sexaul,neglect,emotional abuse
parents commit more than % of abusive incidents other relatives are this %
80, 7
an estimated ____ american children and ____ canadian children die from maltreatment each year
1,500 and 100