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86 Cards in this Set

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What is Piaget's first stage of cognitive-development?
sensorimotor stage
Piaget's first stage spans between what years?
birth to 2 yrs
specific psychological structures--organized ways of making sense of experience
schemas-change with age
Timmy dropped objects in a fairly rigid way, by letting go of a rattle and then his dropping schemas had become deliberate and creative, in tossing he began to throw...example of what?
involves building schemas through direct interaction with the enviornment
we use our current schemas to interpret the external world
we create new schemas or adjust old ones after noticing that our current way of thinking doen not capture the enviornment completely.
balance between assimilation and ______ vary over time
cognitive equilibrium means?
when children are not changing much they assimilate more than they accommodate...steady and comfortable
disequilibrium means?
realize new info does not match their current schemas so they shift away from assimilation toward accommodation...rapid
What is the most complex stage in Piaget's theory?
process that takes place internally apart from direct contact with the enviornment. form new schemas, rearrange them, linking them with other schemas to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system
Sensorimotor is divided into ___ substages?
involves stumbling onto a new experience caused by the baby;s own motor activity.
circular reaction...infant tries to repeat the event again and again ex: baby accidentally made a smacking sound after feeding. finding the sound intriguing she tried to repeat it until she became quite expert at smacking her lips
at first the circular reaction centers around the infants own ____? and then turns outward toward manipulation of _____? then becomes _____ and ______
Substage 1 involves:
what ages?
newborn-1 month
Substage 2 involves:
what ages?
primary circular reaction: gain voluntary control over actions, repeat chance behaviors largely motivated by basic needs
1-4 months
Substage 3 involves:
what ages?
secondary circular reaction: repeat interesting events caused by their own actions
4-8 months
Substage 4 involves:
what ages?
combine schemas into new, more complex action sequences, intentional or goal-directed behavior
8-12 months
coordinating schemas deliberately to solve simple problems
intentional or goal-directed
the understanding that objects continue to exist out of sight...what stage?
object permanence, substage 4
A not B search is what?
if baby reaches several times for an object at a first hiding place(A) and sees it moved to a second (B) she will still search for it in the first hiding place (A)
Substage 5 involves:
what ages?
teritary circular reaction-toddlers repeat behaviors with variation, this capacity to experiment leads to a more advanced understanding of object permanence. 12 to 18 months
internal depications of info that the mind can manipulate...what substage? and age?
mental representation, substage 6 and 18-24 months
what two types of mental representations are there?
images-mental pictures of objects,people
concepts-categories in which similar objects are grouped together
What age can babies mentally represent their experiences
18 to 24
finding a toy moved while out of sight is called?
invisible displacement
the ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present
deferred imitation
children act out everyday and imaginary activites
make-believe play
researches habituate babies to a physical event, then determine whether they recover to an expected event or to an unexpected event
violation-of-expectation method
at this age babies infer that the hand deposited the object under the cloth
14 months
the ability to engage in accurate A-B search coincides with rapid development of the _________ of the cerebral cortex at the end of the first year
frontal lobes
deferred imitation is present at what age?
6 weeks, due to lab research
at what age can infants solve problems by analogy?
10 to 12 months
babies are born with a set of innate knowledge systems, or core domains of thought. helps early rapid development
core knowledge perspectives
this enables swift language acquistions in early childhood
linguistic knowledge
this enables early orientation toward people
ex: intentions, emotions, desires
psychological knowledge
this enables object permanence, object solidity, gravity
physical knowledge
enables infants to discrimanate quantities up to 3 and use that knowledge to perform simple arithmetic
numerical knowledge--very controversial
Cognitive changes of infancy are ____ and continuous
first information enters the _____ where sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly
sensory register
second part of info is we actively apply mental stategies as we "work" on a limited amount of info
working or short-term memory
special part of working memory it directs the flow of info
central executive
permanent knowledge base
long-term memory
in dealing with attention, infants at 1-2 months will do what?
will shift from focusing on single, high-contrast features to exploring objects and patternts more thorougly...also take in info more quickly
As plans and activites become more complex so does the duration of ________
operant conditiong and ________ provide windows into early memory
_________ reseach shows that infants learn and retain a wide variety of info just by watching objects and events
permitting the baby to generate the previously learned behavior strenghtens ______ because it reexposes the child to more aspects of the original learning situation
at this age, babies are excellent at discriminating faces in static photos but their memory for the faces of strange people and for other static pattern is short-lived
3 to 5 months
noticing when a stimulus is identical or similar to one previously experienced
recognition-simplest form of memory
more challenging because it involves remembering something not present
______ helps infants make sense of experients
babies categorize stimuli on the basis of?
this age infants are able to structure objects into an impressive array of meaningful categories?
7 to 12 months
this category is based on similar overall appearance or prominent object parts
this category is based on common functions or behaviors
at this age they touch objects that go together but do not group them
12 months
at this age they group objects into a single category
16 months
_____ both builds on and facilitates categorization
refers to a range of tasks that the child cannot yet handle alone but can do with the help of more skilled partners
zone of proximal development
who designed the first intelligence test?
alfred binet
what test is used for infants ranging from 1 to 3 1/2 months?
bayley scales of infant development
Bayley III has 3 subtest what are they and what do they consist of?
1. Cognitive Scale-attention to (un)familiar things, pretend play 2. Language scale-recognition of objects,following simple directions 3. Motor Scale-gross and fine motor skills
Bayley III has 2 scales that depend on parental report:
Social Emotional Scale and the Adaptive Behavior Scale
indicates the extent to which the raw score deviates from the typical performance of same-age individuals
intelligence quotient (IQ)
giving the test to a large, representative sample and using the results as the standard for interpreting scores
most scores cluster around the mean, fewer fall towards the extremes.
normal distribution
96% of individuals fall in this range for IQ
70 and 130
some concerns that infant test scores do not tap the same dimesnions of intelligence measured at older ages they are labeled as
developmental quotients
_____ is a complex blend of hereditary and enviornmental influences?
checklist for gathering info about the quality of children's home lives through observation and interviews with parents
Home Observation for Measurement of the Enviornment
what % of N. American mothers with a child under age 2 are employed
what % of child care provided positive stimulating atmospheres
2 theories of how children acquire language are:
behaviorism-due to enviornmental influences and nativism-"prewired"
innate system that contains a set of rules common to all languages
language acquistion device
around this age babies began to "coo" -vowel sound
2 months
around this age babies begin to "babble"-consonant-vowel
4 months
gazing in the same direction adults are looking, what age?
joint attention, 4 months
when toddlers first learn words them sometimes apply them to narrowly called
applying a word to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate
the words children use is called? the words they understand is called?
production, comprehension
comprehension develops ahead of production
two word utternace are called
telegraphic speech
their vocabularies consisted mainly of words that referred to objects
referentail style
they produce many more pronounds and social formulas
expressive style
form of communication made up of short sentences whi high pitched expression
child-directed speech